Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Relationship Between Public Sociology And The...

This sociological study will define the relationship between public sociology to the tradition of Positivism. Historically, Positivistic Theory is based on a strict adherence to the scientific aspects of economy and materialism, which seek to analyze society in terms of the physicality of culture and social phenomenon. These traditions stem from the growth of scientific thought and economic analysis found in Marxism, and other ideologies that analyze the material qualities of a culture. In this manner, the growth of Public Sociology is an important development in the necessity of changing social institutions to transform society. This more aggressive form of public sociology relies heavily on social protest, institutional change, and other aspects of social and cultural dynamics that can alter the values of a given society. In this manner, social change is the primary focus of Public Sociology, which contrasts the materialism of positivism as a purely quantitative evaluation of socie ty. In this manner, the use of scientific method and quantitative studies in Positivistic Theory are the major difference in how society is measured in the more institutionally activist methods of Public Sociology that seek to change civilization. Aggers (2013) seeks to reveal the goal of sociology as a means in which to crate greater diversity and a broader range of social perceptions of values and behaviors. More so, Aggers (2013) hopes to use these tools to change society into a more dynamicShow MoreRelatedPositivism And Paradigmatic Approaches979 Words   |  4 PagesThe main three include positivism, interpretive, and critical approaches. These approaches serve as different ways in which knowledge is socially collected and analyzed. Now, each paradigmatic approach comprises of unique traits, some which are similar to each one another and others that are exclusive to a specific approach. These similarities and differences will be examined below. To begin, the main approach used in qualitative research is positivism. The Positivism Approach is rooted in philosophyRead MoreSociology And The Theoretical Perspectives Of Sociology1710 Words   |  7 PagesSociology is seen every day in our lives as humans, it is the scientific study of human behavior and society. The idea of sociology has not been around forever. The term sociology comes from a man named Auguste Comte who takes credit for this study. Not only did Comte come up with this idea but there were several things that influenced the study of Sociology and how we view it today. These influences are called the origins of sociology and they include; new idea or discipline, Industrial RevolutionRead MoreSocial Constructionism, Positivism and Classicism Essay1826 Words   |  8 PagesWith reference to the materials in Block 1 – and using your own words – compare and contrast: * classicism * positivism * social constructionism The role of theory in contemporary youth justice practice is crucial in shaping and conceptualising relationships between youth and crime. It provides a structure for how youth justice is practiced and helps make sense of today’s issues surrounding the topic. Approaches to youth justice have evolved throughout the centuries and it is importantRead MoreHerbert Spencer Essay13142 Words   |  53 Pagesfather, a teacher, had been a Wesleyan, but he separated himself from organized religion as he did from political and social authority. Spencers father and an uncle saw that he received a highly individualized education that emphasized the family traditions of dissent and independence of thought. He was particularly instructed in the study of nature and the fundamentals of science, neglecting such traditional subjects as history. Spencer initially followed up the scientific interests encouraged byRead MoreThe Importance of Demography to Development11868 Words   |  48 PagesSociology is the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relationships, institutions, etc. It generally concerns itself with the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges fromRead MoreEmile Durkheims The Division of Labour in Society2381 Words   |  10 PagesOutline and discuss Durkheim’s ‘The Division of Labour in Society’ Frequently referred to as â€Å"the father of sociology†, Emile Durkheim was one of the most influential and high-ranking individuals in contemporary social thought. His work has stimulated great levels of achievement for many years amongst sociologists in terms of studying civil societies, cultural analysis and the sociology of the emotions (Emirbayer and Cohen 2003:1). Durkheim’s perspectives cover a broad range of other issues as wellRead MoreIntroduction to Qualitative Research6051 Words   |  25 Pagesabout the world? In short, qualitative research is concerned with the social aspects of our world and seeks to find answers to the following questions (Bogdan Biklen, 1992) Besides the social sciences, qualitative research methods are gaining in public health, medicine, nursing, marketing, education and international development research. Quantitative research methods continue to dominate these fields, but researchers are beginning to draw from a more diverse repertoire of quantitative methodologiesRead MoreSociology and Other Sciences7090 Words   |  29 PagesSOCIOLOGY AND OTHER SCIENCES Sociology deals with society [people];how people interact, their culture, norms, values just like other social sciences like psychology, economics, psychology which also deal with people and how they behave, their mental processes. There is also a relationship between sociology and economics which is another social science. economics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how theRead MoreSymbolic Interactionism George Simmel Jacqueline Low10230 Words   |  41 Pagesinteractionism, I argue that the perspective also owes much to the insights of Georg Simmel. In particular, a Simmelian flavor is evident in how Blumer addresses the core sociological issues of the nature of social reality, the nature of the relationship between the individual and society, and the nature of social action. It is the received wisdom that George Herbert Mead exerted a fundamental influence on the development of symbolic interactionism in general and on Herbert Blumer’s thinking in particularRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Disadvantage On Minority Populations2646 Words   |  11 Pagesstudy showed that blacks and Hispanics were exposed to more social disadvantages than whites. Blacks and Hispanics reported greater exposure to poverty, unfair treatment, racial/ethnic stigma, and cumulative disadvantage. There was a correlation between disadvantage and problem drinking for all three racial/ethnic groups. High racial stigma and frequent unwarranted treatment was also highly likely to occur within minority groups. Mulia et al. (2008) share similar results to other studies analyzing

Monday, December 16, 2019

The Fibre Optics Technology Engineering Essay Free Essays

string(38) " the optical maser visible radiation\." In the past year the information is fetched on developments, inventions and hereafter is explained in perceptible mode In add-on to the aforesaid benefits, fibre optics overseas telegrams have high electrical opposition, are non affected by electromagnetic Fieldss, secure, and low weight. Even so, short distance communications usually rely on electrical Cu wiring due to its much lower cost, easiness of usage, and ability to transport a current. Other utilizations of fibre optics include medical imagination and as centripetal tools. We will write a custom essay sample on The Fibre Optics Technology Engineering Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now A The subject about the integrated-optic modulators in high velocity fiber-optic links, operation of devices used to externally modulate light beginnings used with fiber-optic ushers has been explained in a perceptible mode Introduction A fiber-optic communicating system uses the same basic functional constituents as a copper-based communicating system-a sender, receiving system and transmittal medium-except that a fibre-optical nexus ( FOL ) uses optical fiber ( in topographic point of Cu overseas telegram ) as the transmittal medium. Here the optical fiber connects the sender and the receiving system. It carries information in the signifier of light and mainly consists of three parts, viz. , the nucleus, the facing, and the buffer or coating that is used to give strength and protection to the fiber overseas telegram. The nucleus is the cardinal portion of the fiber through which light base on ballss because of the procedure of entire internal contemplation. The cladding surrounds the nucleus, with a different refractile index so that light go throughing through the nucleus stays in that part. The sender consists of an electrical interface, optical modulator and light emitter, and a optical maser rectifying tube or LED for encoding. At the other side, to change over visible radiation into an electrical signal, the receiving system uses either a PIN photodiode or an avalanche photodiode ( APD ) . Several other constituents take portion in set uping an optical fiber nexus ; for illustration, multiplexer, de-multiplexer, signal regenerators, signal repeaters ( or optical amplifiers ) , couplings and splitters. In an optical transmittal system, pick of optical modulators plays an of import portion in the overall public presentation of the system. In this article, we ‘ll concentrate on high-velocity optical modulators, but before we dwell on them in item have a expression at the rudimentss of optical modulators. Optical Modulators Converting information in the signifier of electric signals into light moving ridges is known as optical transition. This sort of transition can be achieved either straight or externally. In direct transition, information in the signifier of electric signals is applied straight to the light beginning. Many links use this sort of technique to cut down complexness of the system, but when informations rates or the length of the nexus additions, ‘on’/’off ‘ velocity restriction of the optical maser generates waveguide chirp and stage transition. This causes amplitude transition deformation at the receiving system side, which is unwanted for high-definition, high-data-rate communicating. In such a state of affairs, a continuously-‘on ‘ optical maser beginning provides a better solution. That is the basic thought of indirect transition or external transition. In direct transition, digital logic province ‘1’/’0 ‘ is applied str aight as ‘on’/’off ‘ electric signal or two different degrees of electromotive force to the light beginning. In these fortunes, factors like clip invariable of the drive circuitry, building of the visible radiation beginning itself and the features of the transmittal medium ( say, optical fibre ) affect the highest frequence at which the visible radiation beginning can run. Using high-velocity layout and microwave design techniques and high velocity short-pulse integrating ; the job with the circuit and transmittal medium can be minimized. But as stated earlier, the major restriction of this technique is exchanging of the visible radiation beginning itself. In a typical optical maser beginning, this shift cause ‘s electrical and thermic emphasis, which consequences in a frequence displacement known as ‘chirp, ‘ transients and decreased life of the light beginning? In external transition, the optical maser rectifying tube itself stays unmod ulated. Data is delivered straight to electrically modulate the crystalline stuff like Li niobate. This device can repeatedly exchange visible radiation without impacting the light beginning. Three types of external modulators are normally used: electro-absorption modulators based on Ga – arsenide ( GaAs ) or indium-phosphate ( InP ) semiconducting material, electro ocular modulators based on polarized polymers, and modulators based on electro ocular crystals like Li niobate and other stuffs. Fig. 2 shows the basic difference between direct and external modulators. Over the period, external modulators based on Li niobate ( LiNbO3 ) have become more popular because of its low optical loss and high electro ocular coefficient. Next is described the working of amplitude and stage modulators, followed by their comparing with semiconducting material modulators based on GaAs ( gallium arsenide ) and InP ( indium phosphate ) . There are two normally used types of optical modulators in fibber ocular communicating systems: the electro soaking up modulator ( EAM ) and the Mach-Zehnder modulator ( MZM ) . Electro Absorption Modulator ( EAM ) EAM is little and can be integrated with the optical maser on the same substrate. An EAM combined with a CW optical maser beginning is known as an electro soaking up modulated optical maser. An EML consist of a CW DFB optical maser followed by an EAM, as shown above. Both devices can be integrated monolithically on the same InP substrate, taking to a compact design and low yoke losingss between the two devices. The EAM consists of an active semiconducting material part sandwiched in between a p- and n-doped bed, organizing a p-n junction. The EAM works on the rule known as Franz-Keldysh consequence, harmonizing to which the effectual set spread of a semiconducting material decreases with increasing electric field. Without bias electromotive force across the p-n junction, the set spread of the active part is merely broad plenty to be crystalline at the wavelength of the optical maser visible radiation. You read "The Fibre Optics Technology Engineering Essay" in category "Essay examples" However, when a sufficiently big contrary prejudice is applied across the p-n junction, the effectual set spread is reduced to the point where the active part begins to absorb the optical maser visible radiation and therefore becomes opaque. In practical EAMs, the active part normally is structured as an MQW, supplying a stronger field-dependent soaking up consequence ( known as the quantum-confined Stark consequence ) . The relationship between the optical end product power, Pout, and the applied contrary electromotive force, Vm, of an EAM is described by the alleged shift curve. The undermentioned figure illustrates such a curve together with the accomplishable ER for a given shift electromotive force, Vsw. The electromotive force for exchanging the modulator from the on province to the off province, the shift electromotive force Vsw, typically is in the scope of 1.5 to 4 V, and the dynamic ER normally is in the scope of 11 to 13 dubnium. Because the electric field in the active part non merely modulates the soaking up features, but besides the refractile index, the EAM produces some chirp. However, this chirp normally is much less than that of a straight modulated optical maser. A little on-state ( prejudice ) electromotive force about 0 to 1 V frequently is applied to minimise the modulator chirp. Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator ( MZ Modulator ) Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators are suited for usage in tube, long-haul ( LH ) and extremist long-haul ( ULH ) optical conveyance applications. The incoming optical signal is split every bit and is sent down two different optical waies. After a few centimeters, the two waies recombine, doing the optical moving ridges to interfere with each other. Such an agreement is known as an interferometer. If the stage displacement between the two moving ridges is 0A ° , so the intervention is constructive and the light strength at the end product is high ( on province ) ; if the stage displacement is 180A ° , so the intervention is destructive and the light strength is zero ( off province ) .The stage displacement, and therefore the end product strength, is controlled by altering the hold through one or both of the optical waies by agencies of the electro-optic consequence. This consequence occurs in some stuffs such as Li niobate ( LiNbO3 ) , some semiconducting materials, every bit good as some polymers and causes the refractile index to alter in the presence of an electric field. The guided-wave LiNbO3 interferometers used to modulate optical maser beams was fabricated every bit early as 1980. LiNbO3 has been the stuff of pick for electro-optic MZ modulator because it combines the desirable qualities of high electro-optic coefficient and high optical transparence in the near-infrared wavelength used for telecommunications.LiNbO3 MZ modulator can run satisfactorily over a wavelength scope of 1300 – 1550nm. It has been widely used in today ‘s high-velocity digital fiber communicating. LiNbO3 MZ modulators with stable operation over a broad temperature scope, really low bias-voltage impetus rates, and bias-free operation are commercially available. High-speed, low-chirp modulators are needed to take advantage of the broad bandwidth of optical fibers. Modulators have became a critical constituent both in the high-velocity time-domain-multiplexing ( TDM ) and wavelength-division-multiplexing systems ( WDM ) . Modulators have been traditionally used to modulate a uninterrupted moving ridge ( CW ) optical maser to bring forth the digital signal to be transmitted through a fiber. High-speed modulator with gt ; 40GHz bandwidth has been fabricated. Low drive-voltage operation is the key to brining such modulators into practical usage because this eliminates the demand for high-octane electrical amplifiers. There is general a trade off between the velocity and the thrust electromotive force. The modulator chirp must besides be taken into consideration in the nexus design. The design of the modulator and the associated chirp can be used as a grade of freedom to widen nexus distance. Indium Phosphide Mach Zehnder Modulator with DWDM Laser Figure 1 shows the construction of the n-i-n optical wave guide. The construction consists of n-InP facing, an undoped InGaAlAs/InAlAs MQW ( I »PL = 1.37 I?m ) , an Fe-doped SI-InP bed ( Semi-Insulating InP bed ) , and an n-InP facing laminated in this sequence on an SI-InP substrate. In order to avoid losingss of the electrical signal and the optical signal caused by the p-type semiconducting material bed, both the signal and land electrode beds are made with n-type semiconducting material beds in which the loss is about 1/20 of that in the p-type. Besides, a high dislocation electromotive force feature is assured by infixing an SI-InP bed doped with Fe between the n-type clad bed and the i-MQW optical guiding bed. The SI-InP and i-MQW beds are 1.0 and 0.3 I?m. Since the electric field is applied in the limited part within the SI-InP and i-MQW beds, the efficiency of transition of the refractile index by the electro ocular consequence can be made larger. Therefore, low-tension ope ration and optical transition with a short electrode length can be realized. Fig. 1. Cross-sectional geometry of the n-i-n wave guide In LiNbO3 and III-V semiconducting materials, they are I?33 = 30.8 pm/V ( LiNbO3 modulator ) I?41 a†°? 1.4 pm/V ( InP modulator ) The coefficient in the semiconducting material is about 1/20 that of LiNbO3. However, while the refractile index of LiNbO3 is 2.2, that of the semiconducting material is about 3.2, so that the existent fluctuation of the refractile index in the semiconducting material is 1/7 that of LiNbO3. Therefore, when an optical modulator utilizing the electrooptic consequence is fabricated, the key to size decrease is how the high-density electric field is applied to the optical field. When the constructions of the optical wave guides are compared, the breadth of the n-i-n optical wave guide is A? that in the LiNbO3 modulator and the electrode spacing is from 1/30 to 1/50, so that an electric field more than 100 times as great is applied. Therefore, even with a shorter electrode, fluctuations of the refractile index take topographic point and stage transition can be achieved. To run an optical modulator, an electrode constellation with a distributed component type is effectual, since it is non band-limited by the CR clip changeless. In this manner, a going moving ridge electrode constellation is formed, along which the electrical signal propagates in the same way as the optical moving ridge for optical transition. In order to execute ultra-fast, high-efficiency optical transition with a going moving ridge electrode, two conditions, speed fiting between the optical and electrical moving ridges, and electric resistance matching with a drive system, are of import. a exposure of the bundle for the push-pull constellation Features aˆ? Voltage programmable end product power control aˆ? Long draw public presentation with negligible punishment aˆ? Integral Etalon wavelength stabilization to within A ± 20 autopsy over life aˆ? Differential or individual 50 Ohm low electromotive force thrust transition input aˆ? Integral thermo-electric ice chest with preciseness NTC thermal resistor for temperature control aˆ? Hermetically sealed butterfly manner bundle with SMA RF connections aˆ? ITU Wavelengths available from 1527 nanometer to 1608 nanometer aˆ? 50 GHz channel spacing Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit FIBER OPTIC TECHNOLOGY MICROWAVE AND MILLIMETER WAVE SYSTEMS Side igniter eliminates the dead-zone. Fibre ocular engineering, traditionally used for long draw communications, is happening new applications in short draw communicating systems in military airborne and shipboard platforms. New commercial services such as fibre-to-the-premise for broadband to the concern and place, broadband radio Internet, and digital picture services are being installed across the USA. The service suppliers and installers of these new systems require new methods of proving fibre ocular nexus public presentation in distances from a few metres to less than 1 Km. Optical clip sphere reflect metres ( OTDRs ) traditionally are used for long haul communicating systems but are limited in their usage in military systems and new commercial services due to dead zones. Artisan Laboratories Corporation has developed the Side igniter ( Patent Pending. ) ; a new trial and measuring system eliminates the dead-zone associated with OTDRs therefore doing it attractive for both military and new commercial applications. The Side igniter has a declaration of a few centimeters and is field portable. Radar and Communication System Testing Radar and communicating system trials require out-of-door scopes to find system public presentation. Using an out-of-door scope is expensive and clip devouring so alternate solutions are sought. Radar trials use fixed marks stat mis off from the radio detection and ranging for standardization. Microwave clip holds can be used to imitate marks that allow for proving in a research lab puting. Many bidirectional ( Patent pending ) microwave communicating channel simulator for two manner wireless have been developed the designed demonstrated transmittal at RF and micro-cook frequences that advanced microwave mark allow testing in a research lab environment. Communicationss Fibre ocular transmittal of digital informations for long draw and metro entree is widely used in the telecommunications industry. As new services are being developed and offered, such as PCS, Broadband Wireless Internet, Digital Video, and Passive Optical Networks, new chances for parallel fibre ocular distribution are emerging. The presentation of a DWDM parallel fibre ocular system used to administer PCS and Broadband. Wireless Internet showed that administering RF over fibre up to 3 GHz has the advantage of simplifying the system architecture and cut downing base station complexness. In this presentation, a DWDM broadband photonic conveyance system was able to run into the demands for both IS-95 Personal Communications Services operating at 1.9 GHz and Broadband Wireless Internet operating over the set of 2.5 to 2.7 GHz. Each DWDM channel operates from 1 to 3 GHz and conveyances services up to 80 Km.Artisan Laboratories Corporation presently offers optical transmittal equipment suited for these applications. Spacecraft New developments for the following coevals of communicating orbiters and infinite based radio detection and ranging systems include the application of active phased array aerial. In communicating systems, active phased array aerial offer on-board reconfigurability and multi-beam operation. These characteristics greatly cut down concern hazard by leting the beam form to alter depending on client demands. Fibre ocular distribution has been proposed for the transmittal of microwave signals from the orbiter coach to the phased array aerial. The advantages of utilizing this engineering are higher stage stableness with temperature due to the fibre mechanical to belongingss ; lighter weight and flexibleness of the fiber ; and smaller size of the optical interconnect and optical power splitters. The usage of fiber besides allows for a high degree of integrating with antenna elements therefore cut downing size and weight. Developers are presently developing multi-level microwave photonic facu lties that utilize such integrating. While these new developments show promise, fibre ocular distribution has the disadvantage of high power ingestion compared with inactive webs such as coaxal transmittal lines. The increased demand on power ingestion can do the usage of fiber in ballistic capsule prohibitive. To do fibre ocular signal distribution competitory with other transmittal engineerings, Scientists are presently developing a new type of fibre ocular engineering call Ultra visible radiation Fibre Optic Link that can significantly cut down the premier power ingestion of the distribution system. Satellite Communicationss SATCOM applications make usage of fibre ocular links to have signals from the aerial at a distant location such as a shelter. These links are normally available and operate at an IF of 70 MHz. This architecture requires a low noise amplifier ( LNA ) , frequency interlingual rendition circuitry ( down- convertors ) , local oscillators, filters and a optical maser sender all located at the aerial site. Architecture allows for the transmittal of the RF or micro-cook frequence from the orbiter aerial straight over fiber to an integrated exposure receiving system and down-converter system located at a shelter. This architecture reduces the equipment required at the aerial site to the LNA and optical maser sender. Many research labs are offering a high public presentation Low Noise Optical Transmitter System and Integrated Photo receiver Down-Converter System that directs the signal straight from the aerial to a microwave modem. The Low Noise Optical Transmitter System is connected straight to satellite antenna systems extinguishing the demand for a separate low noise amplifier. The Integrated Photo receiver Down-Converter System is an all- in-one system that detects RF and microwave signals over fiber, amplifies the signals, and down-converts them to an intermediate frequence ( IF ) to interface with commercially available microwave informations modems. This system can observe RF over fiber at transition frequences up to 6 GHz and can change over the transition to an IF of 70 MHz or 140 MHz. In applications in which signals from multiple SATCOM aerial must be combined and distributed, DWDM parallel fibre ocular transmittal can be employed. DWDM sender and receiving system capableness include signal transmittal over 100 Km and bandwidth that exceeds multiple octaves with a CNR of 32 dubnium in the set of 950 to 2150 MHz. light beginnings used with fiber-optic Optical Beginning The basic demands for the visible radiations beginnings used in optical communicating systems depend on the nature of the intended application ( long-haul communicating, local-area web, etc. ) . Both light-emitting rectifying tubes ( LEDs ) and laser rectifying tubes are used as beginnings. Laser rectifying tubes have the advantage of high power ( 10s of mW ) , high velocities, and narrow spectral breadth. LEDs have the advantages of huskiness, dependability, lower cost, long life-time, and simpleness of design. However, they suffer from comparatively broader line breadth and lower bandwidth. If we use external wavelength filters, this may diminish the power coupled. Even at a individual â€Å" colour † ( wavelength ) several manners may be present. Matching to a single-mode fibre will lose the power in these other manners. Therefore the chief characteristics for a light beginning are: 1 ) Power. The beginning power must be sufficiently high so that after transmittal through the fibre the standard signal is noticeable with the needed truth. This includes stableness of that power both in amplitude and frequence. 2 ) Speed. It must be possible to modulate the beginning power at the coveted rate. 3 ) Spectral line breadth. The beginning must hold a narrow spectral line breadth so that the consequence of chromatic scattering in the fibre is minimized. What is the consequence of a finite I†I » ( scattering ) on your system? 4 ) Noise. The beginning must be free of random fluctuations. 5 ) Emission wavelength. Contrast to fiber fading. 6 ) Emission pattern – The beginning power must be coupled to the fibre. Both light end product country and manner distribution in the beam can be of import. Light moving ridges travel in the optical fibre in the signifier of manners, each with a distinguishable spacial distribution, polarisation, extension invariable, group speed, and fading coefficient. Thus the fibre chosen for your system must run into the design ends after consideration of: 1 ) Multi-mode fibre whether step-index, or graded-index. Single-mode fibre. 2 ) Core size 3 ) Core refractile index profile 4 ) Bandwidth and scattering features 5 ) Attenuation dB/km ( including any connections and splicings ) which is a map of cardinal wavelength. Fibers are widely used in light applications. They are used as light ushers in medical and other applications where bright visible radiation demands to be shone on a mark without a clear line-of-sight way. In some edifices, optical fibres are used to route sunshine from the roof to other parts of the edifice ( see non-imaging optics ) . Optical fiber light is besides used for cosmetic applications, including marks, art, and unreal Christmas trees. Swarovski dress shops use optical fibres to light their crystal show windows from many different angles while merely using one light beginning. Optical fiber is an intrinsic portion of the light-transmitting concrete edifice merchandise, LiTraCon. A Frisbee illuminated by fiber optics A fiber-optic Christmas Tree A fiber-optic Christmas Tree Optical fiber is besides used in imaging optics. A consistent package of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imagination device called an endoscope, which is used to see objects through a little hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical processs ( endoscopy ) . Industrial endoscopes ( see fiberscope or bore range ) are used for inspecting anything difficult to make, such as jet engine insides. An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as Er can be used as the addition medium of a optical maser or optical amplifier. Rare-earth doped optical fibres can be used to supply signal elaboration by splicing a short subdivision of doped fiber into a regular ( undoped ) optical fiber line. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a 2nd optical maser wavelength that is coupled into the line in add-on to the signal moving ridge. Both wavelengths of visible radiation are transmitted through the doped fiber, which transfers energy from the 2nd pump wavelength to the signal moving ridge. The procedure that causes the elaboration is stimulated emanation. Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to roll up scintillation visible radiation in physics experiments. Optical fiber can be used to provide a low degree of power ( around one W ) to electronics situated in a hard electrical environment. Examples of this are electronics in high-octane aerial elements and measuring devices used in high electromotive force transmittal equipment. Optical fibers are besides used in fibre ocular gyroscopes, and other interferometers instruments. Principle of operation An optical fiber is a cylindrical insulator wave guide that transmits light along its axis, by the procedure of entire internal contemplation. The fibre consists of a nucleus surrounded by a facing bed. To restrict the optical signal in the nucleus, the refractile index of the nucleus must be greater than that of the facing. The boundary between the nucleus and facing may either be disconnected, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber. Multimode fiber The extension of visible radiation through a multi-mode optical fiber. Fiber with big ( greater than 10A I?m ) core diameter may be analyzed by geometric optics. Such fiber is called multimode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis ( see below ) . In a step-index multimode fiber, beams of visible radiation are guided along the fiber nucleus by entire internal contemplation. Rays that run into the core-cladding boundary at a high angle ( measured relation to a line normal to the boundary ) , greater than the critical angle for this boundary, are wholly reflected. The critical angle ( minimal angle for entire internal contemplation ) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the nucleus and facing stuffs. Beams that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the nucleus into the facing, and do non convey visible radiation and hence information along the fiber. The critical angle determines the credence angle of the fiber, frequently reported as a numerical aperture. A high numerical aperture allows visible radiation to prop agate down the fibre in beams both close to the axis and at assorted angles, leting efficient yoke of visible radiation into the fiber. However, this high numerical aperture increases the sum of scattering as beams at different angles have different way lengths and hence take different times to track the fiber. A low numerical aperture may hence be desirable. A typical single-mode optical fiber, demoing diameters of the constituent beds. Optical fiber types. In graded-index fibre, the index of refraction in the nucleus decreases continuously between the axis and the facing. This causes light beams to flex swimmingly as they approach the facing, instead than reflecting suddenly from the core-cladding boundary. The ensuing curving waies cut down multi-path scattering because high angle beams pass more through the lower-index fringe of the nucleus, instead than the high-index centre. The index profile is chosen to minimise the difference in axial extension velocities of the assorted beams in the fiber. This ideal index profile is really near to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis. Single manner fiber Fibre with a nucleus diameter less than approximately 10 times the wavelength of the propagating visible radiation can non be modelled utilizing geometric optics. Alternatively, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic construction, by solution of Maxwell ‘s equations as reduced to the electromagnetic moving ridge equation. The electromagnetic analysis may besides be required to understand behaviors such as spot that occur when coherent visible radiation propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical wave guide, the fiber supports one or more confined transverse manners by which visible radiation can propagate along the fiber. Fibre back uping merely one manner is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-core multimode fiber can besides be modelled utilizing the moving ridge equation, which shows that such fibre supports more than one manner of extension ( hence the name ) . The consequences of such modeling of multi-mode fiber about agree with the anticipa tions of geometric optics, if the fiber nucleus is big plenty to back up more than a few manners. The wave guide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is non wholly confined in the nucleus. Alternatively, particularly in single-mode fibers, a important fraction of the energy in the edge manner travels in the facing as an evanescent moving ridge. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a nucleus diameter of 8 to 10 I?m and is designed for usage in the close infrared. The manner construction depends on the wavelength of the visible radiation used, so that this fibre really supports a little figure of extra manners at seeable wavelengths. Multi-mode fiber, by comparing, is manufactured with nucleus diameters every bit little as 50 micrometres and every bit big as 100s of micrometres. Special-purpose fiber Some special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical nucleus and/or cladding bed, normally with an egg-shaped or rectangular cross-section. These include polarization-maintaining fiber and fiber designed to stamp down whispering gallery manner extension. Photonic crystal fiber is made with a regular form of index fluctuation ( frequently in the signifier of cylindrical holes that run along the length of the fibre ) . Such fibre utilizations diffraction effects alternatively of or in add-on to entire internal contemplation, to restrict visible radiation to the fiber ‘s nucleus. The belongingss of the fiber can be tailored to a broad assortment of applications. How to cite The Fibre Optics Technology Engineering Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Competitive Strategy Telstra Corporation

Question: Discuss about theCompetitive Strategyfor Telstra Corporation. Answer: Strategy There are different companies, according to which strategy can be considered as to be the desired idea or concept which can help in evaluating the business practices of the concerned organization. Therefore, it becomes very important for the firm to understand the actual meaning of strategy before implementing it in a particular organization. Some of the firms thinks that the desired strategy is to reduce the cost prices of the goods or the products offered by them to the customers but there are some of the other firms who thinks, strategy to be the tactics which can enhance the overall performance of the respective organization. The primary of the firm will be to enhance the effectiveness of the firm with the help of suitable tactics that can provide the desired elevation in the business processes of the concerned firm (Grant, 2016). The idea for the development of the strategy has evolved from the WAR ART OF SUNTZU, which considers losing to be the bad strategy and winning as the g ood strategy. The development of the good strategy consists of good tactics and planning regarding the utilization of the resources available and it brings out the positive outcomes for the firm concerned. Moreover, it can be defined as to differentiate the similar products available within the concerned market areas. It becomes very important for the firms to develop a good level of satisfaction for the customers; sensation, consistency, and reliability for the customers as this will be help in evaluating the business processes of the concerned firm (Slack, 2015). In other words, the strategy is the desired idea or the concepts that can be used to increase the profitability of the firm as well as it will enhance the brand reputation of the firm throughout the targeted market areas. The implementation of the ideas extracted from the video link provided can be used in various other firms in order to bring out the positive outcomes for them. Telstra Corporation of Australia is one of fastest growing companies in the field of mobile telecommunication (Waddington, 2014). The company can implement effective strategies as per the market need and the requirements of the customers as these will help in evaluating the preferred growth of the business processes concerned. There need to be perfect strategies as to sell the products throughout the different categories of the people in less amount of price as this will help in gathering a large number of the customers towards the firm. Being the low-cost provider will help in evaluating the business processes throughout the targeted market areas. Moreover, the firm needs to work on its weaknesses or the issues coming in between the network connectivity as this will also help in drawing the attention of the clients to the fir m (Pauwel et al., 2012). There might some of the effective strategies regarding the selling of the products along with the services utilizing all the relevant ideas mentioned above. Business Model Innovation Business model innovation is something that lays a foundation for a company to differentiate itself from other competitive companies in the context of product (Massa and Tucci, 2013) designing, transparency in business transactions, establishing brand communities, and much more. Without innovative ideas, a company starts losing its customer base as new brands and companies continue to enter the market sector and alluring a huge variant of customers. It has been observed that many companies (Gobble, 2014) have suffered tactical issues in their vision or mission statement while approaching innovative ideas for the betterment of their companies. Different companies have a different approach toward business model innovations. Some companies incorporate such business models to reduce the production cost of any product, while other follows it as a superb way of indulging and communicating customers into their periphery. Innovative ideas reflect a companys (Amit and Zott, 2012) potential in terms of taking risk factor, launching consumer friendly products, induction of new technology. Consumers are very fragile in nature so to make a tight grip on them a company must provide something to the customer that no other company is providing at that point of time. There are three points which are very crucial in the business model (Taran, 2012) innovation, such as a unique idea, incorporation of new technologies, and a positive approach toward the end outcome of that implemented strategy. All these three aspects show off the potential of a country in the long run market strategy. There is an Australian mining company BHP BILLITON' which works in natural resources field and has a very high inspirational and innovative idea to standardize the living standards of people indulged in it. The innovative idea that the company incorporates is highly appreciable. The company has accumulated new technologies to lower the production cost, assimilating new and skilled workforce from the various community. The company has included innovative ideas at the managerial level as well because the company holds leaders accountable for the company's value growth. It is innovative because, in big companies, responsibility for an incomplete task could be passed on to others head. That way a company starts declining at its moral value. Innovation in market strategy is key aspect while making decisions for the growth procurements of the respective company. Giving priority to manpower and their safety at the utmost, this company has incorporated new technologies to speculate such. The company knows very well the benefits accrued by the participation of stakeholders, so the innovation has led the company to incorporate such technologies that reflects the authenticity of the company's performances over time and give out a sustainable feedback on any corruption if taken place somehow. The company BHP BILLITON has awarded Mr. Henry Muller, the award which all wants to have, the inaugural Technology and Innovation award for his great work in the mining industry. References Amit, R. and Zott, C., 2012. Creating value through business model innovation.MIT Sloan Management Review,53(3), p.41. Gobble, M.M., 2014. Business model innovation.Research-Technology Management,57(6), pp.58-61. Grant, R.M., 2016.Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley Sons. Massa, L. and Tucci, C.L., 2013. Business model innovation.The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management, pp.420-441. Pauwels, R.A., Buist, A.S., Calverley, P.M., Jenkins, C.R. and Hurd, S.S., 2012. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. Slack, N., 2015.Operations strategy. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Taran, Y., 2012. Business model innovation. Waddington, C.H., 2014.The strategy of the genes(Vol. 20). Routledge.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Sedentary life free essay sample

Many of the diseases which afflict people who do office jobs are the direct results of a sedentary lifestyle. Do you agree? That lack of activities in life contributes to many diseases is a fact. Nowadays, the image of office work as a safe and healthy occupation is destroyed. Many people have mentioned that office jobs and sedimentary-related diseases are inextricably linked together. While I accept that it may suit them, I believe that such illnesses are deeply rooted in poor general knowledge about health and it’s methods and also environmental pollutions in working places. Unfortunately, the rate at which the public knowledge grows is not as fast as health science. Due to some factors, such as poverty and poor educational strategies, many people are not aware of simple and appropriate methods of caring and prevention. Statistics show that more than sixty one percents of employers in offices who use computer and laptop frequently are not familiar with the best way of standing on chairs. We will write a custom essay sample on Sedentary life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It would result in or has a high likelihood to result in back pain and more pressure on heart. As many researchers assert, teaching many scientific proofs about physical situations would be able to prevent many office related diseases. Another important factor which has many knock on effects on employers is the sort of pollution existing in work place atmosphere. Offices in big cities often located in noisy and polluted part of town, so that workers are working in a very dense and dirty area. As a result, in Berlin, planners had decided to decline the density of offices in certain are during ten years and had distributed them uniformly in the country. This plan not only yields to a better traffic situation in Berlin, but it also come to more healthy working environments. If planers provide more facilities and subsides on teaching healthy styles in working offices and have an appropriate intervention in deciding about office location, it is a reason to hope to have a more healthy office workers in our society. A sedentary lifestyle is a mode of living in which a person, an adult or child, does not engage in sufficient physical activity or exercise for what is generally considered healthy living. The term is often used by doctors or professionals within the medical community to describe a lifestyle among  many people in highly developed countries that does not afford them opportunities for physical activity. This type of living has been heavily influenced by the propagation of passive forms of entertainment, such as television, video games, and computer use. Along with such inactive types of entertainment, large numbers of adult workers have shifted from physical labor to office jobs, especially in technologically developed nations. Many studies conducted by doctors and researchers have indicated a variety of negative impacts on a person’s life due to living a sedentary lifestyle. Most common among them is increased weight gain and obesity and the accompanying health problems they can cause, such as heart disease, diabetes, and increased chances of certain types of cancer. Lack of exercise can also have a negative impact on a person’s immune system, which can create the possibility for even more negative health consequences. Living this type of lifestyle is not necessarily synonymous with laziness, since a person can be very busy with work and family but without inherent opportunities to exercise. Someone who works at a computer in an office, typically driving or riding in a motor vehicle to and from work, and coming home afterward to watch television or sit in front of a computer once more is likely to stay busy but still not find ways to remain physically active. This means it can be critically important for people who work in these types of careers to find other opportunities for physical activity. Finding ways to get exercise throughout the day, even for someone who works in an office or drives all day, is an essential part of breaking free from a sedentary lifestyle. This can include walking, running, or performing other exercises during breaks and lunchtime as well as finding opportunities for exercise throughout the day. Practices like using the stairs instead of an elevator, parking farther from work to have to walk a bit more each day, and exercising legs and arms even while sitting at a desk are all excellent ways for someone to increase his or her activity. prevention is better than cure essay That subject has a long history and nowadays, all persons who work as medical man choose prevention ways and suggest it to others. If weve look in narrow view to medical treatment history we found ,how many people lost their life just for unknowing a simple thing on infections and ways of affliction. for example a specimen of fever which called milk fever is infected from milk to body and make an agitation in digestion and nervous and defensive systems in the body,it can doesnt occur if we just boiled milk. In fact,Cure has divided in two categories,known cure treatment is belonged to the first category and second group is about the treatments is under discover processing treatment.but prevention ways is known for all of them and for avoiding afflicted with a disease we need to know just some aware which can get it from different ways like broadcasting,internet or directly from physicians. I believe government play an important role in ascending prevention culture,they can done it by investigating in medical centers for different purposes like making training course for persons who relevant to the sickness or sending trainer to far land or border area.Give budget for developing in medical research and encourage people who work in this part. Many countries have many people believe in traditional treatment instead of scientifically, in many cases neither of them doesnt has scientific basis, but it has been originating from our descendants knowledge, it mean they have test and check it on many people and their outcome can be use by medical doctor to examine and find new solutions on avoidance way or treatment.for an species it was fame from the past, it shouldnt ate melon with honey because it made disorder in digestion system. From the day we born we have thought to brush teeth twice a day, wash hands before every meal, not to eat uncovered food from roadside shops and stalls, drink boiled water and many more good habits. And every child has given vocational injections like â€Å"polio†, â€Å"rubella†. This is all because to prevent disease instead of curing it. There are many reasons why people tend to prevent instead of cure. One reason is that some illnesses can’t be cured. Disease like HIV AIDS, dengi has no cure. Dengi infect ease have to stop all their work and rest till it get cured by body itself but AIDS have  no cure at all. So in this prevention is the only option. When you get sick, you have to visit doctors, buy medicines, sometimes bed rest till you get full recovered. All These things cost your valuable time. So preventing from disease save your time instead of curing. If you get sick, you may have to visit doctors and most of the time you have to pay for it. Also you cost money for the medication you buy. So preventing not only save your time, but also your money. Preventing yourself from disease also help to stop them from spreading. Preventing yourself is very important in times that epidemic disease spread. It may help to stop another hundreds of people getting infected and also in a country like Sri Lanka where the resources are limited you may saving a bed for a another person. Preventing save your valuable time, money and it helps t o stop disease from spreading. It’s clear that prevention is always better than cure I certainly think it is very true that prevention is better than cure. When we speak of illnesses, the common cold and influenza, or flu, comes to mind immediately. These two illnesses can be prevented although many people think otherwise. To prevent falling ill easily, one has to first build up his immune system. To do that is not as difficult or impossible as many would think. To build up our immune system, we need to eat well, sleep well and exercise regularly. By eating well, it does not mean that one has to gorge oneself during each mean. Rather, it means he has to be more aware of what he eats. Put simply, it means he has to eat food that is beneficial to his body, namely those that contains all the essential vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fat necessary to keep him healthy. The amount a person requires form each groups depends greatly on his lifestyle. Thus, the diet of a person who does mainly sedentary work is different from that of a person who labours manually for the most part of the day. Sleep, as everyone knows, is important as it gives our bodies the rest that we need. We should try to sleep at least eight hours a day so that our tired bodies have enough time to recuperate and be ready for another day. Very often, a person thinks he can skip an hour or two a night to watch an exciting programme on television, or to finish a game on the computer. Little does he realize that by skipping an hour or two each evening, he is depriving his body of precious recuperating time. This time lost cannot be made up by extra sleeping hours at a later date. As time goes on, he grows more susceptible  to illnesses as his body becomes weaker from the lack of sleep. The next important thing to note is, of course, exercise. By exercising regularly, a person is building up resistance to viruses and bacteria that find easy prey in people who do not exercise. Thus, it is possible to prevent illnesses by building up a strong immune system though eating healthily, sleeping well and exercising regularly. Prevention implies to stop doing something. Cure means to find a solution. Man is prone to commit mistakes. Prevention is the shield which saves mankind from many disasters, chaos and destruction. Man can foresee the happenings of the future. He checks himself from doing anything wrong. We must measure very step we take. Cure involves much more effort and pain than what would needed to prevent a problem from affecting us. A cure is a blessing, but prevention is more than a blessing. It is better than cure. A wise act of cautious mind can check us from stepping into something wrong or dangerous. The act of right living makes everything possible. Living in the right sense means living judiciously, wisely and cautiously. Man has the knowledge of distinguishing between the right and the wrong, the good and the evil,. the safe and the dangerous. He can judge them and escape from dangers and difficulties before thy engulf him. Many fail to distinguish between them and find themselves trapped. Then they seek a cure. Prevention halts or obstructs the danger or evil etc, from the person before it overpowers him. It makes the person escape from it completely. Cure is a solution for the danger or evil which has already engulfed him. Hence, prevention is better than cure. A man is judged by his character and manners. His character can be easily polluted. Sometimes people happen to come in contact of bad people. This affects their life badly. They can become a slave to bad habits like smoking, drinking, gambling etc. They may create problems in his family affairs, health and finances. They can lead a healthy life if they avoid them and prevents themselves from falling into such habits. Prevention can be ensured by planning ahead. An unfortunate act can be avoided if planning is done well in advance. If you want to lose some weight, have a plan, if you want a new job, have a plan. Everything usually goes systematically if we plan for it earlier. The planned programme of vaccinating children well in time has led to the decrease of the incidence  of diseases like polio, measles, tetanus etc. Thus, vaccination can prevent in time will help in the . prevention of these diseases in time will help in the eradication of the same. It is also correct when it is said that we have to take risk or listen to our instincts at some level, but it is also a fact that we cannot take risk in some aspect of like education, finance, health etc. Any kind of carelessness in these aspects may cause destruction. So it is better to take all necessary precautions before hand. A healthy, balanced diet and daily exercise can prevent the risk of falling prey to obesity. The obesity diseases like heart ailments, diabetes, blood pressure ect can also be taken care of. Todays, AIDS is the most terrifying and deadly disease. AIDS in incurable but it is preventable. Millions of people are suffering from this dreadful disease. A negligent act can make one suffer from AIDS. The use of disposable needles, safe sex, tested donors blood to a recipient and loyalty t ones spouse can prevent one from getting infected by HIV. Preventive measures taken in other areas also lessen the intensity of suffering. Keeping an eye on market position can prevent stock broker and a share holder from an economical fall or financial catastrophe. Population control measures would lead to better living conditions. Better education system would result in well informed citizens taking right decisions. Dams can prevent the occurrence of flood. Weather forecasting helps people to take preventive measures against dangers like tsunami, cyclone etc. The new techniques of seismology has been introduced to forecast the earthquake. It helps us to take preventive measures. To know how to prevent, one needs to be alert. One should be very careful while doing something. We should start every work only after judging the pros and cons of that. It is better to avoid doing certain things, the benefits of which are not significant. By combining ones judgment and preventive abilities, one can lead a joyous and healthy life

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Woyzeck Essays

Woyzeck Essays Woyzeck Paper Woyzeck Paper The wise saying goes, â€Å"They do not have enough money for the funeral rites; God, let not the poor persons die!† Woyzeck is based on a true story. To meet the ends of justice, a poor person was executed for stabbing his wife, Marie, to death. This incident inspired Buchner to create an artistic masterpiece in the form of a drama. But not all the characters therein, are historical figures. Great personalities leave some or the other controversies behind them. Buchner is no exception. He died in 1837 even before giving the final shape to Woyzeck, and he left behind four unpolished manuscripts, that stand as witness to his creativity â€Å"Buchner suggests that, were they not poor and downtrodden, Woyzeck and Marie might be as great as the biblical figures with which he associates them. His allusions to Christ and Mary only heighten the sense that Woyzeck and Maries shameful actions are not part of their nature but rather, products of an unjust social structure.†(Grade Saver†¦) They say, â€Å"God loves those who die young.† This seems to be true about George Buchner (1813-1837).He died at the young age of 24.He was born in the small own of Goddelau, in Hessen, Gemany. His father was a rationalist and a scientist. When he was undergoing medical training at Strasbourg in 1831, he was secretly engaged to Minna Jaegle, the daughter of a pastor. From a political activist, his interest later turned to theatre. Woyzeck was his ultimate effort, where his political philosophy, spiritual inclinations with scientific approach is mirrored. Though not a playwright by profession, he is hailed as the provider of a great source for modern drama. Buchner was far ahead of his time and what he wrote is considered as all-time great. It has the universal appeal and transcends the narrow boundaries that restrict human thinking. â€Å"He is said to have precipitated in a wide and far-reaching array of literary movements including: Naturalism, Social Realism, Psychological Irrationalism, Expressionism, and Existential Theatre. As Herbert Lindenberger phrases it, he is perhaps the only German writer before our own [20th] century who speaks directly to our time without the need of mediation. George Buchner died of an undiagnosed fever, probably typhus, at the age of 23 on February 19, 1837.(Grade Saver: Classic Note†¦)â€Å"Many scholars consider the play the first modern drama, and mark it as the catalyst for countless theatrical movements, most notably Naturalism and the modern Theatre of the Absurd. Buchners biting social commentary in the play, which stemmed from his own political disillusionment, anticipates Karl Marxs theories although it rejects the possibility of revolution or a classless utopia.†(Schmidt, 1969) Woyzeck is the work of â€Å"psychological realism.† The uncertainty, about which one is the authentic version, provides a fertile field for the scholars to argue and counter-argue. As for every detail related to the play, they have disagreements. Whether it is order of the scenes, the ending, the scholars are baffled at Buchner’s style. Each scene is structurally independent. His approach and reaction to the social conditions prevailing then is cynical.   Most of the scholars agree that the scene where the Grandmother tells her ‘black fairy tale’ as the play’s thematic keystone. As many scholars, so many varied interpretations about Buchner’s beliefs, reasoning and mental make-upHe visualizes nothing but gloom and pessimism, disillusionment and solitude, the independent scenes succeed in building a coherent whole, the scientific approach, sharp social criticism and   the bold and dispassionate approach. Each character has the purpose and the essential dignity and at the same time they compliment and contrast the protagonist’s traits etc. That the scholars agree to disagree on many issues related to the play is the hall mark of the genius. Woyzech is a tough play to produce. Ingmar Bergman succeeded in his efforts to remove the blackouts in the play, by integrating the audience. â€Å"Austrian composer Alban Berg finished his opera version of the play, Wozzeck, in 1922, and it was first performed in 1925. In order to retain Buchners disjointed, melancholic feel, Berg makes extensive use of atonality and rejects the standard forms of aria and trio in favor of abstract instrumental music. Wozzeck has since become a standard and widely performed work in the world of opera. In addition, many film versions of the play have been produced, most notably Werner Herzogs 1979 version starring Klaus Kinski and Eva Mattes, which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival.† (Grade Saver: Full Summary-) What does the play mean to me? Woyzeck is the same old story through the ages-the struggle between the haves and the have-nots! I see this story as the hard depiction of the atrocities of the rich on the poor. The class conflicts and the belief of the rich that they are born to rule and the economically backward deserve ill treatment! Can one expect the leader representing such a class to be full of sweet emotions? Certainly not! He is ever ready to hit back, on behalf of his class, the rich and the haughty, those who conduct the show of systematic debasement and spiritually murder the downtrodden. E. F. Schumacher, in his book â€Å"Small is beautiful† goes to the root cause of this never ending conflict between the rich and the poor. â€Å"The existence of inordinate rich people in any society today is a very great evil. Some inequalities of wealth and income are no doubt ‘natural’ and functionally justifiable. Excessive wealth, like power, tends to corrupt. Even if the rich are not ‘i dle rich,’ even when they work harder than anyone else, they work differently; apply different standards, and are set apart from common humanity. They corrupt themselves by practicing greed and they corrupt the rest of the society by provoking envy.†(Schumacher, 1977, Back Cover†¦) Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely! Study the attitude of the Drum Major. Even the rustic Marie, when it comes to describe the animal instincts of her latest lover, the Drum Major uses the phrases like, â€Å"He stands on his feet like a lion(scene II) and the more close and intimate description, â€Å" a chest like a bull and a beard like a lion.†(Scene VI). The street-fighter’s image in the Drum Major is showing, when he describes Marie at the first sight of her, that she is â€Å"good enough for the propagation of cavalry regiments and the breeding of drum majors!†(Scene III) He addresses her as if he is the ultimate authority on her personal life, when he calls her â€Å"You wildcat!†(Scene VI).How can a man bear his woman’s infidelity? Woyzeck is totally frustrated and in great anguish he says, Why doesnt God blow out the sun so that everything can roll around in lust, man and woman, man and beast. Theyll do it in broad day light; theyll do it on our hands, like flies. (Scene XI). Animal imagery especially surrounds Woyzeck himself, in his interactions with the characters who oppress and dehumanize him. The Captain ridicules this poor soldier with meanness about Marie’s unfaithfulness. As Woyzeck rushes our, he says, â€Å"that tall rascal takes off like the shadow before a spider.†(Scene IX).The Doctor is even more ruthless on Woyzeck. The Doctor throws a cat from his window, and when Woyzeck catches it, observes, â€Å"The fellow holds onto the beast s tenderly, like it was his own grandmother!† The so-called higher class of the society like the Captain, the Drum Major and the Doctor speaking mean language indicates the level of the morals prevailing in the society then. My approach to the play as the playwright: The important part of the play is the play- writer and his script. The characters are brought to life by the intelligent scriptwriter of the play. Whether minor or major, the characters need to speak appropriate to the occasion, and contribute to the continuity of the play. The main problem with Woyzeck has been its disjointedness. Blackouts have no place in a well-knit play. Those who addressed to this problem have successfully staged the play. The technique employed by Ingmar Bergman to keep a lively interaction between the audience and the actors of the play contribute to the success of the play. A good script can only strike the homogenous balance between the actors and the audience. Whatever is the time, whatever is the period, the two constant factors in a play are the actors (in the broad sense, they can be musicians and instrument players) in the play and the audience. It is the duty and skill of the former to keep the later pleased, as their report counts for demand of more and more repeat performances of the play. As a playwright, I have enough scenes that can be depicted with telling effect and make the audience rise on their toes. For example, unable to bear the mental torture from his superior authorities, Woyzeck becomes like the captain in a hapless shipwreck. He loses his mental balance and throws up the towel and stops thinking. Obviously his mind does not work and he is an emotional burden to himself. He gives into hallucinations. He hears the ground whispering,† stab stab the bitch to death? Stab stab the bitch to death. Do I hear it over there, is the wind saying it too? It goes on and on stab her to death to death. (Scene XII) â€Å"According to Buchner, the poor are the purest class because they are untainted by pretension and laziness. Even though this also makes them unrefined and animalistic, it is preferable to the kind of stuffy inaction or moral depravity represented by the middle-class figures like the Captain, Doctor, and Drum-Major. Woyzecks poverty also connects him more deeply to the character of Christ; after all, the latter was a humble carpenter who was still capable of the greatest and holiest things.† (Grade Saver: Woyzeck –Full Summary†¦) I entirely agree with the observations of Buchner in the play. When the society is ruled by greed and envy of the middle and rich class, the poor can not be their competitors. From where would the poor get the fighting spirit when curry for the night is worry for the morning and tomorrow’s bread is not assured from today’s labor! When their individual dignity stands punctured at every level and every stage of their lives! The poor are the practical people and they are the purest class. They are not lazy and bifacial. But to live in perennial poverty is the root cause of their emotional suffering and criminal tendencies.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Unity in Paragraphs and Essays

Unity in Paragraphs and Essays In composition, unity is the quality of oneness in a paragraph or essay that results when all the words and sentences contribute to a single effect or main idea; also called wholeness. For the past two centuries, composition handbooks have insisted that unity is an essential characteristic of an effective text. Professor Andy Crockett points out that the five-paragraph theme and  current-traditional rhetorics emphasis on method reflect further the expediency and utility of unity. However, Crockett also notes that for rhetoricians, the achievement of unity has never been taken for granted (Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 1996.) Pronunciation YOO-ni-tee Etymology From the Latin, one. Observations Most pieces of effective writing are unified around one main point. That is, all the subpoints and  supporting details are relevant to that point. Generally, after you have read an essay, you can sum up the writers main point in a sentence, even if the author has not stated it explicitly. We call this summary statement a thesis. (X. J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Marcia F. Muth, The Bedford Guide for College Writers, 8th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2008)Unity and CoherenceA good check on unity is to ask yourself if everything in your paragraph or essay is subordinate to and derived from the controlling idea. Make sure that your controlling idea- the topic sentence or thesis- indicates the subject and the focus on that subject...​ (Lee Brandon and Kelly Brandon, Paragraphs and Essays With Integrated Readings, 12th ed. Wadsworth, 2012) Rules of Thumb for Writing Unified Paragraphs Be sure your paragraphs focus on one idea and state that idea in a topic sentence.Place your topic sentence effectively within your paragraph. Let the purpose of your paragraph and the nature of your evidence guide you.Let your paragraphs evidence- the selected details, the examples- illustrate or clarify the idea expressed in your topic sentence.Make sure you explain the relationship between your evidence and your idea so that it is clear to readers.Think about unity among paragraphs when writing essays. Be sure your paragraphs are related, that they fit together and clarify your essays idea.​ (R. DiYanni, Scribner Handbook for Writers. Allyn Bacon, 2001) A Note on Topic Sentences Paragraphs may not have a topic sentence, but they must have unity and purpose. All the ideas in a paragraph should relate to a clear point readers will easily understand. (Mark Connelly, Get Writing: Paragraphs and Essays. Thomson Wadsworth, 2009) Counterviews on Unity Unity is the shallowest, the cheapest deception of all composition... Every piece of writing, it matters not what it is, has unity. Inexpert or bad writing most terribly so. But ability in an essay is a multiplicity, infinite fracture, the intercrossing of opposed forces establishing any number of opposed centres of stillness.(William Carlos Williams, An Essay on Virginia, 1925)

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Economic Opportunities Available for African American Women Essay

Economic Opportunities Available for African American Women - Essay Example Both males and females of African ancestry often face discrimination in different aspects of their lives, ranging from educational opportunities to provision of healthcare services and employment in the labor market. Extensive research has been conducted to shed more light on various impacts of racial and gender discrimination, such as low self-esteem, poor performance of students at schools and employees at the workplace, as well as and low economic growth and development. Blacks also have greater health issues such as prolonged depression, increased suicides, more AIDS and a reduced sense of personal achievement, along with a much higher death rate for many of the leading causes of premature demise (Williams 2001). Many research studies have also been conducted to determine the best possible solutions to solve problems related to these effects of discrimination. However, very little research has ever been conducted to determine how racial and gender discrimination has adversely aff ected the economic capabilities of African-American women. With this in mind, this research study hypothesizes that gender and race are the major sources of discrimination and have the most difficult effects on the economic capabilities of African-American women. ... A new aim of recent research studies by economists studying the labor market has been to determine the implications of racial discrimination for victims and other members of that particular race. For example, racial discrimination against African-Americans is known to reduce possibilities of employment in many multinational organizations. Furthermore, previous studies have found that discrimination mostly results from gender differences, amongst other factors. However, these past research studies have failed to determine the various effects of racial and gender discrimination on economic opportunities available to African-American women. Therefore, there is a great need to study the adverse effects of discrimination on economic opportunities available to African-American women. Sellers and Shelton (2008) argue that African-American women are at greater risk of gender discrimination due to social stereotypes, unequal income distribution, limited rights to productive inputs, such as cr edit facilities or financial loans, property ownership, and management of earned income as well as other race-related biases. By definition, racial discrimination refers to an act of maltreating an individual or a group of individuals based on their race. For example, an African-American woman may not be warmly welcomed in activities of a local church that is dominated by white Americans due to her skin color. Puhl et al.’s (2008) definition of racial discrimination usually includes distinction, restriction, or preference of an individual based on his or her skin color, race, or ethnic origin. This paper aims to examine what the effects of discrimination based on gender and race is like for

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Health Administarion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 12

Health Administarion - Essay Example When the information is released publicly and available for scrutiny by various people, it improves the quality of the health care organization even more due to the lack of secrecy. It also enables trust to be built between the public and the health care organization staff which is necessary health care service deliveries (Green and Bowie, 34). With public release of such sensitive information, there is a likelihood of the privacy of the organization’s privacy being breached. This is especially so when the quality measurement data released is done so electronically due to the hacking into the systems once there results are made available to the general public. Privacy is important and especially concerning health records and hence breach is very risky (Green and Bowie, 108). The other risk is that the reception of the data may be the opposite of the expectation. If the quality measurement report is too superb and opposite of what is the reality in most health care organizations, the report may be jeered and the trust between the organization and the public ends up widening, hence the quality ends up dwindling even

Saturday, November 16, 2019

You Are an Investment Analyst Essay Example for Free

You Are an Investment Analyst Essay History â€Å"Brad’s drink† was created in the summer of 1893 by pharmacist Caleb Bradham of New Bern, North Carolina. The drink was renamed Pepsi Cola in 1898, after pepsin and cola nuts were used in the recipe. Also in 1898, Caleb Bradham wisely bought the trade name Pep Cola for $100 from a competitor from Newark, New Jersey that had gone broke. The new name was trademarked on June 16th, 1903. Bradhams neighbor, an artist designed the first Pepsi logo and ninety-seven shares of stock for Bradhams new company were issued (Bellis, 2012). After seventeen years of success, Caleb Bradham lost Pepsi Cola. He had gambled on the fluctuations of sugar prices during W.W.I, believing that sugar prices would continue to rise but they fell instead leaving Caleb Bradham with an overpriced sugar inventory. Pepsi Cola went bankrupt in 1923. In 1931, Pepsi Cola was bought by the Loft Candy Company Loft president, Charles G. Guth who reformulated the popular soft drink. Guth struggled to make a success of Pepsi and even offered to sell Pepsi to the Coca-Cola company, who refused to offer a bid (Bellis, 2012). In May, 1886, Coca Cola was invented by Doctor John Pemberton a pharmacist from Atlanta, Georgia. The soft drink was first sold to the public at the soda fountain in Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta on May 8, 1886. About nine servings of the soft drink were sold each day. Sales for that first year added up to a total of about $50. The funny thing was that it cost John Pemberton over $70 in expanses, so the first year of sales were a loss (Bellis, 2012). In 1887, another Atlanta pharmacist and businessman, Asa Candler bought the formula for Coca Cola from inventor John Pemberton for $2,300. By the late 1890s, Coca Cola was one of America’s most popular fountain drinks, largely due to Candler’s aggressive marketing of the product. With Asa Candler, now at the helm, the Coca Cola Company increased syrup sales by over 4000% between 1890 and 1900. Until the 1960s, both small town and big city dwellers enjoyed carbonated beverages at the local soda fountain or ice cream saloon. Often housed in the drug store, the soda fountain counter served as a meeting place for people of all ages. Often combined with lunch counters, the soda fountain declined in popularity as commercial ice cream, bottled soft drinks, and fast food restaurants became popular (Bellis, 2012). Products and Services PepsiCo is a global food and beverage leader with a diverse product portfolio that includes 22 brands that each generate more than $1 billion each in annual retail sales. Pepsi-Cola North America is the refreshment beverage unit of PepsiCo, Inc., in the United States and Canada. Its U.S. brands include Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Sierra Mist, SoBe, AMP Energy, IZZE, Naked Juice, Propel, Mug, and Aquafina, among others. The company also makes and markets North America’s best-selling ready-to-drink iced teas and coffees, respectively, via joint ventures with Lipton and Starbucks (PepsiCo, 2012). Frito-Lay North America is the $13 billion convenient foods business unit of PepsiCo. For more than 75 years, Frito Lay has enjoyed growing the best snacks on earth starting with simple, farm-grown ingredients. To continue growing the best snacks on earth, they are working to reduce their impact on the environment by improving how they make their snacks. Frito-Lay is also dedicated to giving consumers a wider range of healthier choices. They offer great-tasting chips with less fat through their Baked! Line and snacks made only from natural ingredients, which contain no artificial colors, flavors or preservatives with their Natural line. All of their snack chips contain 0 grams of trans fat (PepsiCo, 2012). Tropicana Products, Inc., a division of PepsiCo, Inc., is the leading producer and marketer of branded fruit juices. Tropicana markets its products in the U.S. under a variety of brand names, including the Tropicana not-from-concentrate line of juices: Dole ® juices and juice blends; Tropicana ® Juices, Trop50 and Tropicana Twister ® juice beverages. The Dole brand name is licensed from Dole Food Company, Inc. (PepsiCo, 2012). Quaker brands have been around for over a century. They are symbols of quality, great taste, and nutrition. Holding No.1 positions in their respective categories are favorites such as Quaker Oats, Quake r Rice Cakes, Chewy Granola Bars and Rice-A-Roni ®. With its Aunt Jemima ® brand, Quaker is also a leading manufacturer of pancake syrups and mixes. It is among the four largest manufacturers of cold cereals with popular brands like Cap’n Crunch ® and Life ® (PepsiCo, 2012). Available in more than 80 countries, Gatorade’s line of performance drinks adds over 45 years of rehydration and sports nutrition research to the PepsiCo portfolio. In early summer of 1965, a University of Florida assistant football coach sat down with a team of university physicians and asked them to determine why so many of his players were being affected by heat and heat-related illnesses. The researchers Dr. Robert Cade, Dr. Dana Shires, Dr. H. James Free and Dr. Alejandro de Quesada soon discovered two key factors that were causing the Gator players to â€Å"wilt†: the fluids and electrolytes the players lost through sweat were not being replaced, and the large amounts of carbohydrates the players’ bodies used for energy were not being replenished (PepsiCo, 2012). The researchers then took their findings into the lab, and scientifically formulated a new, precisely balanced carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage that would adequately replace the key components lost by Gator players through sweating and exercise. They called their concoction â€Å"Gatorade.† After years of careful research by the staff at GSSI into the needs of athletes engaged in high-demand training and competition, Gatorade launched the Gatorade Performance Series, an elite line of sports nutrition products, in 2001. These products include Gatorade Energy Drink, Gatorade Energy Bar, and the Gatorade Nutrition Shake (PepsiCo, 2012). Four years later, after studying endurance athletes, GSSI developed the Gatorade Endurance Formula. Featuring a higher concentration of sodium the key electrolyte found in Original Thirst Quencher and four other electrolytes lost in sweat, Gatorade Endurance Formula became a mainstay on racetracks the world over (PepsiCo, 2012). The Coca-Cola Company is the world’s largest beverage company, refreshing consumers with more than 500 sparkling and still brands. Led by Coca-Cola, the world’s most valuable brand, our Company’s portfolio features 15 billion dollar brands including Diet Coke, Fanta, Sprite, Coca-Cola Zero, vitaminwater, Powerade, Minute Maid, Simply, Georgia and Del Valle. Globally, we are the No. 1 provider of sparkling beverages, ready-to-drink coffees, and juices and juice drinks. Through the world’s largest beverage distribution system, consumers in more than 200 countries enjoy our beverages at a rate of 1.8 billion servings a day. With an enduring commitment to building sustainable communities, our Company is focused on initiatives that reduce our environmental footprint, support active, healthy living, create a safe, inclusive work environment for our associates, and enhance the economic development of the communities where we operate. Together with our bottling partners, we rank among the world’s top 10 private employers with more than 700,000 system employees (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Major Customers PepsiCo is proud to offer consumers a wide range of products that deliver great taste, nutritional value, convenience and affordability. They’re committed to playing a responsible role in health and wellness by encouraging consumers to adopt healthy lifestyles, beginning with offering consumers a choice of a wide variety of products. PepsiCo is always finding innovative ways to reduce the use of energy, water and packaging, and to better serve consumer wants and needs through new products and packaging. Through continuously expand their distribution network to make their enjoyable products more widely available. PepsiCo works relentlessly to improve productivity so they can offer affordable products to a broad range of consumers (PepsiCo, 2012). Coca-Cola system is a global business that operates on a local scale, in every community where we do business. Coca-Cola is able to create global reach with local focus because of the strength of the Coca-Cola system, which comprises our Company and our nearly 300 bottling partners worldwide (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). While many view our Company as simply â€Å"Coca-Cola,† our system operates through multiple local channels. Our Company manufactures and sells concentrates, beverage bases and syrups to bottling operations, owns the brands and is responsible for consumer brand marketing initiatives. Our bottling partners manufacture, package, merchandise and distribute the final branded beverages to our customers and vending partners, who then sell our products to consumers (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Major Suppliers Since 2007, PepsiCo has employed a Supplier Code of Conduct (ScoC) globally. The PepsiCo Supplier Code of Conduct communicates our global expectations in the areas of labor practices, associate health and safety, environmental management and business integrity (PepsiCo, 2012). Our Supplier Code is based on the International Labor Organization, United Nations Global Compact and other internationally recognized standards. The ScoC includes 13 standards that require suppliers to adhere to the following: basic compliance with local law, respect for human rights and prohibiting all forms of forced or compulsory labor, ensuring no child labor is used, and cooperating with reasonable assessment processes requested by PepsiCo. The ScoC is communicated in 19 languages, and is mandatory in procurement contracts globally (PepsiCo, 2012). Our suppliers and business partners are vital to our continued success. They help us refresh the world, more than 1.7 billion times every day, by delivering necessary products and services for our business (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Having a sound, stable and ethical supply base is important for our growth and the footprint we leave in local communities around the world. Our suppliers provide our system with materials, including ingredients, packaging and machinery, as well as goods and services. As a company, we have a responsibility to hold our direct suppliers and bottling partners to standards no less than those required by applicable law. We also have an opportunity to support community development by purchasing goods and services from minority- and women-owned business enterprises (MWBEs) (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Our suppliers are expected, at a minimum, to conduct business in an ethical manner and comply with all applicable laws and regulations. Our Supplier Guiding Principles (SGPs) communicate our values and expectations for our bottling partners and business partners. The SGPs are a part of all supplier agreements, and a pre-certification practice is in place for trademark marketing suppliers. Suppliers also are provided training and assistance programs on an as-needed basis for areas where they need to improve their operations (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Leadership In 2010, PepsiCo created the Global Sustainability team, whose role is to develop, implement and enforce standards to ensure consistency and quality in our sustainability reporting and ultimately accelerate our Performance with Purpose mission (PepsiCo, 2012). More specifically, an overall governance structure has been defined and implemented. This includes the creation of the Sustainability Steering Committee (SSC), made up of the most senior members of the organization (the majority report directly to our CEO), as well as the establishment of Sustainability Leadership Teams across all four planks, based on defined roles and selection criteria, and guided by PepsiCo’s Public Policy Coordinating Group (PepsiCo, 2012). The Performance Sustainability Leadership Team (PSLT), Human Sustainability Leadership Team (HSLT), Environmental Sustainability Leadership Team (ESLT) and Talent Sustainability Leadership Team (TSLT) are responsible for creating our overall strategy, driving implementation and identifying issues/risks, which are then communicated to the Sustainability Steering Committee (PepsiCo, 2012). Since our first soda fountain sales in 1886, we have been a driver of marketplace innovation and an investor in local economies. Today we lead the beverage industry with more than 500 beverage brands – including four of the world’s top-five sparkling brands. But while our business opportunities are enormous, our commitment to our consumers and the communities in which we operate is even greater (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Muhtar Kent, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, leads us into the new century with a firm commitment to the values and spirit of the world’s greatest brand. In our journey to become a sustainable, profitable growth company, our management structure has evolved to sharpen external focus on the marketplace with greater speed, productivity and effectiveness (Coca-Cola Journey, 2012 ). Initial Public Offering An initial public offering yesterday by Pepsi Bottling Group Inc. provided a stark contrast to the pyrotechnics of recent Internet offerings. In a spinoff from its parent company, PepsiCo Inc., Pepsi Bottling sold 100 million shares at $23 each, for a total of $2.3 billion, which will be used to pay off debt. The initial offering price was settled at the low end of the estimated range of $23 to $26, an indication that prepricing demand was less than the company had anticipated. The stock closed at $21.6875 on the New York Stock Exchange. Analysts were quick to distinguish Pepsi Bottling Group’s offering from the string of highly successful recent Internet deals, whose phenomenal openings have conditioned investors into expecting huge first-day gains (Pepsi Spinoff in Lackluster Stock Offering, 1999). Initial public offering involves the first or initial sale of the corporation’s common shares to the public in the hope of raising additional revenues for the corporation. If you will apply in on the case of Coca Cola, the worldwide manufacturing and distribution of their carbonated drink products is the result of their IPO, which happened in 1919. A single share of Coca Cola is worth $40 dollars, yet the market value of their shares suddenly crashed to $19 per common share in 1920 (when they have undergone a secondary market offering). Despite of such crash in the market value of their common shares, Coca Cola managed to survive and extend operations to different regions around the world, particularly within the Asian and European regions. Different corporate entities later on affiliated with Coca Cola to further boost their revenue generation capabilities (Interesting Initial Public Offering of the Coca Cola Company and Its Worldwide Affiliate Units, 2010).

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Everyone Should Go to the County Fair! :: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays

Everyone Should Go to the County Fair! If you've been to the County Fair before, there's no reason for you to keep reading this. You already know how much fun it is. You don't need to be convinced. You're already going back. You can stop reading right now, go buy your pre-sale tickets, and get the car packed up and ready to go. But you, yes, you, what's your excuse for not having been to the past 156 County Fairs? Oh, "I wasn't born 156 years ago," you say? That's no excuse. You're just going to have to go to this year's Fair to make amends. After all, there are more reasons to go to the Fair than there are to stay home. Of course, there are the classic reasons for going to the Fair: the dozens of rides and attractions along the mile-long midway; the incredible variety of food and drink available; the many hands-on livestock exhibits; the opportunity to make hundreds of little goldfish paranoid by hurling plastic projectiles into their bowls; and, of course, the wide variety of special events. If you've been to the Fair before and are reading this article anyway, you may as well keep reading to see what's new. Quite a few things are swinging at the Fair this year, and that's not just a poor attempt at sounding "hip." You can, for instance, start by swinging to the tunes of the Artie Shaw Orchestra, the band that helped shape the musical standards of the Big Band era. They'll be performing a free concert in the Music Dome from August 12th to 16th at 7 pm. If you're looking for a more daring kind of swinging, head over to watch the Incredible Nocks, a husband and wife daredevil team performing free daily shows at the Old Fashioned One-Ring Circus. Finally, if swinging people aren't your style, you can check out some swinging of axes at the World Champion Lumberjacks Show, also performing free daily shows. I know, by now, all this talk of swinging has made you dizzy, and you want to go and check out the "tamer" animal-oriented events, right? Well, there are plenty of new attractions this year, starting with the presentation of the Hawthorn White Tigers, 15 rare endangered animals which are non-existent in the wild. Then there is the all new Shark Show, featuring live sharks, a diver, plenty of educational content, dramatic lighting, smoke effects, and Jaws music! Better practice saying "You're gonna need a bigger boat" in your best old salt voice.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Human motivation in the professional setting Essay

Consider these two findings of a classical management experiment by David McClelland on developing achievement motivation (1965): 1) Not all management programs automatically lead to improved performance. This was important to know. There is a viewpoint in psychology which states that the positive effects of such courses are largely due to suggestion, or to the â€Å"power of positive thinking†; and according to this view it would not be achievement motivation training as such that produced the effect we secured; any training promoted as convincingly would work as well. Yet the participants in the company course did not do as well, despite the fact that, if anything, it had a more solid company support – all of which argued against this viewpoint. 2) Our experiment showed its effects only in comparison with a course that seemed to slow people down. This strongly suggested that we ought to be trying it in a less achievement-oriented environment if we wanted to find more dramatic effects. To a certain extent we were only â€Å"gilding the lily† in trying to make the executives of this high-pressure firm more achievement-oriented. Citing psychology as basis, let me leave McClelland’s assertions and get to that field of social science. We know that motivation directs behavior towards a particular incentive that produces pleasure or alleviates an unpleasant state. In other words, incentive motivation is characterized by affect, the production of pleasure or displeasure. Early psychologists argued that almost every sensation we have contains some degree of reward or displeasure. This might explain why the new participants in the McClelland experiments fared well and better than those who were originally from the company. The second point of conclusion explains that the original company participants were already used to the environment and the rigors of the experiment provided an additional push to the already rigorous environment. Human Motivation in the Human Setting Page 2 In addition to this, it will be worthwhile to take another answer to the perennial question: How do you install a generator in an employee? A brief review of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory of job attitudes is required before theoretical and practical suggestions can be offered. The findings of those experiments and studies, along with the corroboration from many other investigations using different procedures, suggest that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation) are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction. Since separate factors need to be considered, depending on whether job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction is being examined, it follows that these two feelings are not opposites of each other. The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, but rather no job satisfaction; and similarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, but no job dissatisfaction. Two sets of different needs of man are involved here. One set of needs can be thought as stemming from his animal nature – the built-in drive to avoid pain from the environment, plus all the learned drives which become conditioned to the basic biological needs. For example, hunger, a basic biological drive, makes it necessary to earn money, and then money becomes a specific drive. The other set of needs relates to that unique human characteristic, the ability to achieve and, through achievement, to experience psychological growth. The stimuli for the growth needs are tasks that induce growth; in the industrial setting, they are the job content. Contrariwise, the stimuli inducing pain-avoidance behavior are found in the job environment. To illustrate, a typical response involving achievement that had a negative effect for the employee was, â€Å"I was unhappy because I didn’t do the job successfully. † A typical response in the positive side, on the other hand was, â€Å"I was happy because the company reorganized the section so that I didn’t report any longer to the guy I didn’t go along with. † Human Motivation in the Human Setting Page 3 What then should the manager do? To answer this question, let me get back to the thesis of McClelland (1965). He outlines four major techniques: 1. Goal Setting – McClelland stresses the involvement of considerable goal setting. In an organization, employees get motivated as they come to embrace the same goals set in the organization. Aside from the function of motivation, it also keeps the people intact and together. Goals can then be developed from the general to the specific. 2. Language of achievement – the point here is to develop the â€Å"achievement syndrome. † â€Å"This part,† says McClelland â€Å"deals specifically with having the individual learn to think, talk, act, and perceive others like a person with a high achievement motive†¦In short, the participant learns to use the language of achievement so that it colors his experience in every day life. † 3. Cognitive Supports – In brief, the employee needs to have a logical environment, a good self-image, and a thing that he/she will value for life. These will motivate a person to perform better. 4.and lastly, Group Supports – the people around the person must provide emotional stability and support for the growth of a person. Respect and acceptability is the key for this last facet. Human Motivation in the Human Setting. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baldwin, C. (1966). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Maslow, A. H. (1943). â€Å"A Preface to Motivation Theory† Psychosomat. Med. Vol. 5 McClelland, D. C. (1965). â€Å"Achievement Motivation can be Developed† Harvard Business Review. Harvard College.