Monday, September 30, 2019
Question-1: How would you forecast the manpower needs of Ya Kun? There are few ways by which we can forecast the manpower needs of Ya Kun Kaya. They are: * Trend analysis * Ratio analysis * Scatter plot and * Computerized system Based on trend analysis, we can find new recruit by studying the variation of their past employment levels which means that they can provide an initial estimate of future staffing needs, but employment levels rarely depend just on the passage of time. They looked their past performance of sales, productivity and so on to estimate their employee also because if their performance goes beyond their expectation like Ya kun that have many outlets throughout the world, they may required more employee either full time or part-time. Other forecasting method that we can use to forecast their manpower is ratio analysis. In this method, the forecasting would be based on the historical ratio between some causal factor (like sales volume) and the number of employee required such salespeople. In this case, Ya Kun need more employee because they need more salespeople to run the business in each of their outlets. The sales volume for Ya Kun also one of the factor that Ya Kun need to recruit employee. Compared to trend analysis, ratio analysis assumes that productivity remains about the same. Another method we can use is scatter plot to forecast their manpower. In this method, the personnel may use two related variables to indicate the relation between the two such as sales volume and number of employee. If these two factors are related, then the points will tend to fall along straight line then the personnel can forecast the need of new recruitment. Computerized forecasting also is one way that can be used to forecast their need of manpower. With programs like these, employers can more accurately estimate how many employee that they need to projected productivity and sales. Question-2: What are the advantages and disadvantages of Ya KunÃ¢â¬â¢s hiring part-time workers? Advantages of hiring part-time workers include: * Flexibility in scheduling as they help to fill in the gaps when the full-time workers go on leave or are taken ill. * Part-timers will complement the full-time workers. * Allows Ya Kun to tap into a larger available pool of job applicants as many more people may be willing and able to work part-time as opposed to full-time. * They may be deployed strategically during peak hours. Disadvantages include: * They may be less committed to the company. * It may be more difficult to integrate them as they only work occasionally. * Having too many part-time workers may affect teamwork. Question-3: A good attitude and commitment are two important attributes that Ya Kun looks for in its job applicants. Is a job interview an effective method to assess these two attributes? What else can Ya Kun do to get reliable information on these two attributes? A job interview may not be the most effective method to assess these two attributes as they are not directly observable during the interview process. In order to obtain reliable information on these two attributes, managers of Ya Kun may: * Ask the job applicants for referrals in the application pack, and contact the referrals to obtain information regarding these two attributes. * Use critical incidence interviews to test if the job applicants have past examples of these attributes. * Provide job applicants with a realistic job preview by telling them about all the challenges and worst case scenarios that their staff faces. This allows the applicants to have a better idea of the job and make a better-informed choice of whether to take up the job or not. * Use role-playing exercises where the applicants play the role of the staff, and the managers the customers, so that the managers may observe how the applicants may potentially react when they are actually working for Ya Kun. Question-4: What suggestions would you make to Ya Kun to improve its recruiting processes? Ya KunÃ¢â¬â¢s low turnover rate and large pool of hardworking committed workers indicates that its recruitment processes are working well. However, to improve their recruiting process, Ya KunÃ¢â¬â¢s managers may choose to: * Use more internal referrals as employees know what kinds of applicants will fit well with the prevalent company culture. * Hire a larger ratio of part-timers to full-timers as this allows them greater flexibility in scheduling. * Convert part-timers to full-timers if they perform well and if they are open to the switch. * Maintain contact with those employees who have left the company so that they can be informed of any new positions in the company. Q1. Ya Kun can forecast the manpower needs by using ratio analysis to conduct a quantitative analysis of information in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements. Ratios are calculated from current year numbers and are then compared to previous years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy to judge the performance of the company. Based on the analysis, Ya Kun could increase their salesperson to run the business in their outlet. Ya Kun can even use trend analysis as an aspect of technical analysis that tries to predict the future movement of a stock based on past data. Trend analysis is based on the idea that what has happened in the past gives traders an idea of what will happen in the future. Based on trend analysis, Ya Kun can find new recruit by using their past experienced by estimating the number of staffs needed in future. The organization could either recruit full- timers or part timers. YaKun also can use computerized system to predict the manpower needs for their organization. The employer could estimate the number of staffs needed to increase their sales. Q3. A job interview is not really an effective way to assess these attributes. It is because a job interview is only a process in which a potential employeeÃ is evaluated by an employer. During this process, the employer hopes to determine whether or not the applicant is suitable for the job by looking at their experience and academy level. If Ya Kun is looking for an employee with a good attitude and commitment they could use behavioral interview questions. Through this way the employer could ask questions related on what they did in past jobs or life situations that are relevant to the particular job and skills. The answers given by the applicant can be used to predict their future performance in similar situations. Ya Kun could also use situational interview questions. During the question and answer session the applicant will be ask to imagine a situation and respond base on it. Based on the answers given, the employer could predict the commitment level of the applicant. Ya Kun could use the two weeks training period to study more about the applicant because it is difficult to judge the attitude and commitment level during theinterview. Usually commitment level and attitude will be only revealed after acertain period of time.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
There are countless positions on the acquisition procedure, understanding the mechanisms of and our apprehension of larning as theory and the practical application of methodological analysis has evolved well over clip. Each theory contributes to our apprehension of how scholars integrate information and experiences from their environment. This has deductions for single growing and besides for institutional policy and pattern. In this paper I will reexamine three theoretical positions on acquisition, viz. the Constructivist/Cognitivist position, the Phenomenographic position, and the Socio-cultural position, I will depict the salient characteristics and features of each theory, and compare the similarities and differences across positions. This will include a treatment of how learners entree information, make sense of that information, and act on it in deliberate and purposeful ways as a agency of prosecuting with the universe. From there I will look into what these larning theories emphasize or give relevancy to the constructs of context, significance, and experience. The assorted positions each have something to state about the relationship between context, significance, and experience as they relate to acquisition, nevertheless the importance of these nucleus constructs differs in how each theory conceptualizes acquisition, and the importance of the function of context, significance, and experience. Finally, I will reason with illustrations that bring these positions to life in my mundane experience, and I will adhere these theories together within a cohesive apprehension of acquisition and instruction as it relates to the interrelatedness of the constructs of intrinsic motive, fluctuation, and transportation.Three theoretical positions on larningThere are legion theories of acquisition, each stressing a peculiar characteristic of the learning experience. Assorted theories of larning besides depict larning in different ways depending on the point of view of the perceiver. Each theory emphasizes thoughts related to context, significance, and experience in different ways as they relate to acquisition, both from the position of the scholar and from the instructor/teacher/coach/mentor.Constructivist/Cognitivist PerspectiveÃ¢â¬Å" Objectivity is the psychotic belief that observations could bemade without an perceiver Ã¢â¬ ( von Foerster, 1995, pg. 5 )The Constructivist theoretical orientation holds that cognition is acquired experientially, is mediated by our anterior apprehension, and is based on the belief that we learn by making instead than detecting, and that cognition is built upon old acquisition. Ã¢â¬Å" The indispensable nucleus of constructivism is that scholars actively construct their ain cognition and intending from their experiences ( Doolittle, pg 1 ) Piaget was chiefly concerned with cognitive buildings that occurred as a consequence of interactions withÃ¢â¬ ¦ Constructivism emerged from early surveies of acquisition, behavior, and depth psychology, and the behavioral point of views of Watson, along with Kohler and Koffka Ã¢â¬Ës Gestalt psychological science. ( Tools pg. 7 ) Constructivism as theoretical apprehension exists along a continuum from Ã¢â¬Å" weak Ã¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å" strong Ã¢â¬ signifiers constructivism This is an adaptative procedure whereby behaviors evolve to run into the altering demands of the environment, and knowledge serves to makes sense of subjective experience. ( Doolittle, 1999, 1 ) Constructivism emerged from schools of behaviorism and objectivism, which held that there was a cognizable nonsubjective world that existed independent of the person. Constructivism takes the position that meaningful personal experience is the footing of cognition and acquisition. Persons construct intending within a context of personal experience that is rooted in linguistic communication, civilization, and the societal experiences of each person. There can be no objectively verifiable truth or cognition within constructivism, as each single brings a alone position grounded in their ain old cognizing. Much of this cognition is silent and resides in the inexplicit memory of the scholar, but it exerts its influence and acts as a filter through which the person Ã¢â¬Å" sees Ã¢â¬ new information and relates it to their apprehension of the universe. Knowledge and therefore acquisition is constructed within the head of the person. Constructivism rejects the impression of an nonsubjective and cognizable world independent of the perceiver, and holds that cognition of the universe is constructed through the active cognitizing on the portion of persons. Constructivism rejects the impression of an oberver-independent universe in favor of cognition reflecting the subjective worlds of the perceiver. ( Glaserfeld, 1989, p. 3 ) Knowledge is non a representation of world, but alternatively a Ã¢â¬Å" aggregation of conceptual constructions that turn out to be adapted or, as I would manner, feasible within the cognizing topic Ã¢â¬Ës scope of experience. ( Glaserfeld, 1989, p. 4 ) Within Cognitive constructivism ( account of strategy theory, accomodation, assimilation ) . Cognitive constructivism adheres to theoretical accounts of cognition building that consider the function of memory, cognitive concepts, and scheme without sing to the full the subjective nature of cognition as occupant within the head of the topic. Knowledge in this sense implies an internal representation that accurately reflects an observer-independent external world. ( Doolittle, 1999, 2 ) Extremist constructivism differs from cognitive constructivism by progressing the thought that larning is an adaptative procedure, and that it is observer-dependent and resides in a fluid and dynamic knowledge that considers the subjective experience of cognition building. Extremist constructivism, like societal constructivism, besides accepts societal interactions as informing cognition building. Social constructivism takes the position that societal interactions contribute to cognize, and views the societal and cultural context as grounding cognition Ã¢â¬Å" to a specific clip and topographic point. ( doolittle pg 4 ) These assorted positions exist on a continuum, nevertheless the most cardinal apprehensions are shared. We all hold memories of old experiences ; those collected memories and experiences, both tacit and explicit, go the lens through which we view our current unfolding world. Emerging grounds within the kingdom of neuroscience and interpersonal neurobiology may foretell farther homogenisation of constructivist doctrine and apprehension. Interpersonal neurobiology views the encephalon as a societal organ built through experience. This insight displacements Cognitive Constructivism farther along the continuum in the way of extremist and societal constructivism by imparting back uping grounds to the two staying epistemic dogmas, viz. that Ã¢â¬Å" knowledge organizes and makes sense of one Ã¢â¬Ës experience, and that Ã¢â¬Å" knowing has roots in both biological/neurological building, and societal, cultural, and language-based interactions. Ã¢â¬ ( Doolittle, 1999 ) Learning is transactional, with experience act uponing cognitive building and the fictile cognitive buildings act uponing o ur experience in a dichotomy of experience and subjective world. As Carr provinces, Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦ the turning organic structure of grounds makes clear that the memory inside our caputs is the merchandise of an inordinately complex natural procedure that is, at every blink of an eye, finely tuned to the alone environment in which each of us lives and the alone forms of experiences that each of us goes through. Ã¢â¬ ( Carr, 2010, P. ? ? ) Carr recounts some of the current research on memory and experience, and expands on the thought that our encephalon construction continuously changes with experience ; encephalon malleability, the turning and pruning of synaptic connexions over clip, changes our very memories and our remembrances of experience based on new experiences. ( Carr, 2010, p. 190 ) Researcher Kobi Rosenblum farther describes how memory, which in a sense is our recalled experience, can be a fictile and traveling mark. As he explains, Ã¢â¬Å" ..the human encephalon continues to treat information long after it is received, and the quality of memories depends on how the information is processed. Ã¢â¬ ( Carr, 2010, p. 191 )Meaning within Cognitivist/Constructivist PerspectiveMeaning as significance for each position, but it is built-in to an apprehension of constructivism. Meaning is cardinal to the intentionality of scholars ; relevancy and significance enhance a scholar Ã¢â¬Ës ability to associate with th eir universe. It besides relates to constructs of motive as it relates to a scholars sense of bureau and battle with their experience, ad it highlights the importance of civilization and linguistic communication as societal go-betweens of larning? ? ? ? Ã¢â¬Å" The importance of these memory mechanisms to the development of cognitive psychological science is that, one time understood, they make it really clear that a individual Ã¢â¬Ës ability to retrieve points is improved if the points are meaningfully related to each other or to the individual Ã¢â¬Ës bing cognition. The cardinal word here is meaningful. Ã¢â¬Å" Wynn pg.4 Ã¢â¬Å" What is meaningful to people is determined by what they can retrieve of what they have already learned Ã¢â¬ . Wynn pg 4 Opportunities for larning within a constructivist model occur most readily when what is being learned has relevancy or high emotional valency for the scholar ; in other words when information or experiences are meaningful. In order for larning to be meaningful it should be relatable to old cognition and experience. This building-block theoretical account of cognition and experience is wholly consistent with a scholar as meaning-maker. The deductions for learning and educational teaching method are that undertakings that have significance and relevancy tend to be of greater intrinsic involvement to scholars. Research on the experience of larning speaks to the importance of significance as it relates to knowledge building, and speaks of the importance of liberty, bureau, pick, and coaction in driving our instrinsic motivational desires to prosecute in meaningful undertakings, retrieve and remember information, self-organize, and be funny. A larning context rich in significance is important.Context within Cognitivist/Constructivist PositionsLearning occurs most successfully at the intersection of a scholar Ã¢â¬Ës old cognition of the universe and the experience of socially mediated interactions with others, and is influenced by all accumulated societal and cultural experiences. ( Bodrova & A ; Leong, 2007, p. 9 ) The context for larning resides within the experience and imaginativeness of the scholar, and is rooted in anterior experience and is mediated by teachers/facilitators and the ecological scene or context. Within this larning context, Feuerstein describes the function of mediation. Ã¢â¬Å" The go-between creates in a individual an attack, a signifier of mention, a desire to understand phenomena, a demand to happen order in them, to understand the order that is revealed, and to make it for oneself. Ã¢â¬ ( Feuerstein, Feuerstein, & A ; Falik, 2010, p. 37 ) Mediators can take many signifiers, but they portion in common an ability to potentiate a scholar Ã¢â¬Ës ability to profit from larning experiences. In the absence of a go-between, even in instances where persons get cognition, they may non Ã¢â¬Å" understand its significance. Ã¢â¬ ( Feuerstein et al. , 2010, p. 37 )Experience within Cognitivist/Constructivist PositionsAs scholars construct their ain experiential world within a societal and cultural context, the dyadic interactions that unfold connote a grade of coaction and battle with acquisition that is per se motivated by a meaningful context within which larning occurs/unf olds. Collaborative acquisition is by its nature socially constructed acquisition, where the involvement of scholars is cardinal, meaningful, and contextual. Decontextualized acquisition by contrast deficiencies a sense of connexion to the experience of acquisition. Prior experiences of larning are diminished when there is no meaningful context, and reliable experiential acquisition suffers. When pick around construction and content is collaboratively negotiated, scholars are granted a degree of liberty around how and what they learn, and experiences that are meaningful topographic point larning within a context more suited to the acquisition manner, ends, and precedences of the scholar. Kohn emphasizes these conditions of coaction, content, and pick, as making the conditions necessary for reliable and per se motivated larning to emerge. ( Kohn, ? ? ? )Phenomenograpy/Variation TheoryÃ¢â¬Å" There is no larning without understanding. And there is nounderstanding without fluctuation. Ã¢â¬ ( Marton, Trigwell, 2000 )The theory of phenomenography is connected with the survey of human experience, peculiarly as it relates to educational research. Phenomenography examines believing and larning within the context of educational research, and seeks apprehension of Ã¢â¬Å" the different ways in which people experience, interpret, understand, perceive, or gestate a phenomenon, or certain facet of world. Ã¢â¬ ( Orgill, ? ? ? ? ) Marton defines phenomenography as Ã¢â¬Å" a qualitative research methodological analysis, within the interpretivist paradigm, that investigates the qualitatively different ways in which people experience something or believe about something Ã¢â¬ ( Marton, 1986 ) . One of the cardinal epistemic dogmas? ? ? related to Phenomenographic theory relates to constructs of fluctuation, understanding, and transportation. Marton postulates that in order for larning to happen, Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦ at that place must needfully be a form of fluctuation nowadays to see, and this form must be experienced Ã¢â¬ . ( Marton, fluctuation, pg.1 ) . In order for larning to happen, scholars must see a broad scope of fluctuation in experience, with sameness or similarity lending small to our apprehension of experience. Variation and difference create a broader context for understanding experience, and besides spread out our repertory when meeting fresh state of affairss or fortunes. This transportation of acquisition is built-in to variation theory and a cardinal underpinning of phenomenography. Experiencing difference or fluctuation may be likened to experiences of cognitive disagreement within constructivist theoretical accounts of acquisition, where an single experiences disagreement and a disturbance and must set their construct of this new information within their existing paradigm. How we categorize, makes sens e of, or place with that difference relates to our understanding accomplishments. Discernment allows a topic to see or feel an experience Ã¢â¬Å" against the background of his or her old experiences of something more or less different. Ã¢â¬ ( Marton, pg.386 ) . In kernel, as topics experience greater fluctuation they become more attuned to progressively subtle differences between the Ã¢â¬Å" physical, cultural, symbolic, or animal universe Ã¢â¬ that they inhabit. ( Marton, pg 386 ) Every phenomenon that is experienced merely in contrast to jump experiences of the same phenomenon ( marton, pg 387 ) The deductions for teaching method centre on the use of the objects of fluctuation in order for scholars to see fluctuation, go expert at discerning, and reassign larning across state of affairss. Ã¢â¬Å" Excellence in instruction has really much to make with what facets of the object of larning are subjected to fluctuation, and what facets of the object are capable to fluctuation at the same time. Ã¢â¬ ( Marton, pg. 391 ) Subjects learn to pull off freshness as a consequence of holding experienced freshness through fluctuation. ( Marton, pg. 394 ) . Transportation is concerned with how Ã¢â¬Å" what is learned in one state of affairs affects or influences what the scholar is capable of making in another situation. Ã¢â¬Å" ( Marton, pg. 499 )Meaning within Phenomenographic/Variation Theory PerspectiveContext within Phenomenographic/Variation Theory PerspectiveA construct that illuminates thoughts of context within the phenomenographic position relates to constructs of located acqui sition. Situated in this case Ã¢â¬Å" refers to what surrounds the learning event ; that is, to the socially constructed life-world in which a peculiar case of larning occurs. Ã¢â¬ ( Sameness in transportation, pg. 511 ) Sameness and difference in larning and experience are acknowledged, nevertheless Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦ the extent to which we can do usage of something we have learned in one state of affairs to manage another state of affairs is a mom Decision Learning is non merely geting new information and hive awaying it on top of the information we already have. It involves run intoing something unexpected ( what? ? ? might depict as a disturbance ) , something that can non be easy explained by those theories or apprehensions we have already developed. To decide that struggle we have to alter what we antecedently believed ( kohn, pg 187? ? ) This account is the tie that binds constructivism, fluctuation, theory and strategy theory to societal acquisition, along with thoughts of motive and personal bureau.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Annotated Bibliography Example He agrees with Cohrs that fear can impact the acceptance of anti-terrorism actions and laws. The main phrase here is Ã¢â¬Å"civil disobedience.Ã¢â¬ For Allen, civil disobedience does not always relate to coercion and intimidation, though demonstrators also aim to generate public dialogue and use moral appeals to justice. The approach of the author is to use social and political theory to explain terrorism reactions from the public. This is different from other sources and it so it will be useful in understanding terrorism from the perspective of deliberative democracy. This article is important in emphasizing how deliberative democracy can promote peaceful means of civil disobedience. This is an interesting point on how people can avoid being terrorists themselves by resorting to violence and propaganda. This article will be useful in expanding the debate to consider how democracies are defined and how their definitions can impact the framework of and discourse on terrorism and civil liberties. This reference approaches the subject of terrorism in a critical manner by citing the views of three speakers, Malcolm Wallop, David Kopel, and Nadine Strossen. These speakers agree that the government tends to pursue anti-terrorism policies that hurt civil liberties. They define their approaches against anti-terrorism legislation and their effects on civil liberties. The image that they are forming is that anti-terrorism laws are also anti-civil liberties. Another image is the Big Brother symbol for an authoritarian government that uses terrorism to enhance its powers, while reducing individual rights to their civil liberties. Big Brother, for them, appears paternal, but can be easily exploited by the government for their self-interests, such as reducing freedom of speech and association and privacy rights. Wallop argues that citizens should also be against anti-terrorism legislation that hamper them from
Friday, September 27, 2019
Mining of Diamond in Sierra Leone - Essay Example The latter deposits are easily accessible as they are mostly found along the Coastal areas. Even mining them does not require a large input of resources i.e. a shovel and pan. However, the other type of ore requires a large input of technology such ass hydraulic trucks. The largest percentage of diamonds in the world comes from alluvial deposits while a small percentage comes from kimberlite deposits. (Oomsa, 2002) There are a number of parties that were involved in the diamond trade in Sierra Leone. The first one was De Beers Company which began in the early twentieth century. They were not the only group interested in diamond trade at that time. Some Lebanese traders used to smuggle diamonds from Sierra Leone to Liberia. The country's government has played a major role in perpetrating these conflicts surrounding diamonds. After the country gained its independence, a law was passed that allowed independent local miners to obtain licenses. This fueled illegal diamond trade. To make matters worse, the Sierra Leone kept getting inadequate leaders. One such leader was Prime Minister Steven. He gave himself mining rights and allowed a lot of illegal trade just to popularize his name. This occurred in the late 1960s. He was the one who perpetrated the end of De Beers Company and his ally Mohamed bought shares from De Beers (it had decided to stop involving itself in Sierra Leone). As the country approached the end of the century the government kept being more and more corrupt thus allowing plenty of foreigners to participate in this illegal trade. After the reign of Prime Minister Steve, another leader took over called Momoh. During the 90's, Sierra Leone started a civil war. This was as a result of unrest among citizens who felt that their needs were not being met by the current government. Profits from diamond trade were simply going to a few powerful individuals. A rebel movement called the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) began its activities in the year 1991. It claimed that it was fighting for the rights of the common man by asking for equitable distribution of profits earned from the diamond trade. This group of rebels obtained resources for acquiring firearms through diamond smuggling. This meant that illegal trade kept getting worse and worse. (Janine, 2006) There are a number of human rights that were violated by the ongoing civil war in Sierra Leone it lasted for nine years. The rebels took away the right to life because a numerous number of individuals were killed through the dreaded RUF rebel group. About seventy five thousand people were killed through this war. They wanted to instill fear among the locals so that they could yield to their commands. RUF also wanted to illustrate that the government of the day was powerless and couldn't even protect its people. The war surrounding diamond trade also caused immense suffering among the locals. Some of them were mutilated and their body parts were placed in bags. This was done by most of the rebel soldiers. Women and children were not spared as many were tortured, raped, and taken as captives to work as sex slaves. A number of these women contracted sexually transmitted infections or bore illegitimate children. (Lansana, 2006) The conflict disempowered most members of the community because they could not be able to fend for themselves after loss of their limbs. Most of
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Key themes - Assignment Example Descriptive moral relativism provides that there are deep and widespread moral differences across different societies and these differences are weightier than the agreements that exist. Meta-ethical relativism on the other hand, provides that the falsity or the truth of moral judgments or their justifications are not universal but relative to the convictions, practices and traditions of a group. Normative moral relativism maintains that meta-ethical, moral realism suggests that we ought to tolerate the behavior of others, even where such behavior contradicts our cultural or personal standards.2 Arguments for moral relativism include the diversity argument which provides that there is a great diversity in the notions of what is moral and what is immoral and each view on morality is correct. The humility argument provides that an individual is in no position to tell others that their moral beliefs are false and everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral beliefs are true. People also accept moral relativism in order to tolerate and respect differing opinions on right and wrong. Problems of moral relativism include inconsistencies on what is right and wrong and the unacceptable consequences of the different views on what is moral and what is
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The indian Ocean History of Global Trading in Pearls and Silk and its Impact on Cultures - Essay Example This realization becomes evident through the analysis of global interdependence between countries for commodities in trend during the early Roman kingdom of the first century c.e. It is very exiting to know that trade through the Indian Ocean was in full swing even in ancient times when there were no ships and other secure means of transportation of goods through the sea-channels. It was the monsoon system that made navigation easy from one part of the world to another through sea route. The Arab and Indian mariners had full knowledge of the flow of monsoon winds, helping the sailing of boats carrying goods for shipping in the Indian Ocean. Later, this knowledge got transferred to mariners from Ptolemaic Egypt. Winds in winter time blow from the northeast uninterruptedly and in summer they come from the southwest. This awareness of the monsoon cycle helped sailors to roam about everywhere across the Indian Ocean (The Formation of Classical Societies 159). Global trade was on the high at the finish of the first century B.C. among the five close rulers of that time: the Roman kingdom, the Parthian kingdom, the Kushan kingdom, the nomadic alliance of Xiongnu, and the Han Kingdom. Global trading routes were created from the Greco-Roman city of Antioch, passing through the Syrian Desert through Palmyra to Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital city, finally reaching Seleucia, situated on the Tigris River, as one can see from the map below (Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art par. 1). Eastern side of the old world reachable to travelers in the first centuryÃ A.D. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hg/hg_d_trade_d2map.gif The most critical port situated on the Persian Gulf, becoming a medium of distribution of commodities, was the port of Spasinu Charax, as shown in the map above (on the left of the Parthian Empire). The whole of Parthian kingdom, starting from the Tigris to Ctesiphon to Euphrates to Dura-Europos, and also covering the connected cities of the Arabian and Syr ian Desert were supplied the goods shipped via the oceanic route. A number of land passages also got stationed at ports situated on the eastern Mediterranean, as from here the goods used to be supplied to adjacent cities (Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art par. 2). The Roman maritime trade routes with the East via Red Sea got dense, initiating commercial growth but from the culture point of view, trade in eastern commodities was seen in the kind of a fiscal crisis and moral risk. Financially, the trade with India was causing huge deficit to the Roman economy in the first century c.e. Commodities trade of the Roman Empire with India was seen more risky for creating ethical meaning of going against the philosophy of stoicism than treading on an economic danger zone. The cause behind this ethical consideration was that Romans considered fashion-related commodities such as silk and precious gem stones to be more objectionable to their philosophy of stoicism than pepper, as use of lu xury commodities indicated the human degeneration that Roman stoicism wanted to maintain distance with (Fitzpatrick 31). As the two commodities discussed include pears and silk, it would be pertinent to know how they were harvested and produced in the ancient times. There has been a history behind the finding of pearls and using them as an item of beauty enhancing jewelry. The Gulf of Mannar is understood to be one of the areas where pearls used to be harvested
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Nano-Thermal Analysis - Essay Example hydrate & solvent 4) Assay development UV, HPLC, TLC 5) Stability Ã Ã Ã Ã In Solution Thermal, hydrolysis, pH Ã Ã Ã In solid state Oxidation, proteolysis metal ion Derived properties Ã 6) Microscopy Particle size and morphology 7) Bulk density Tablet and capsule formation 8) Flow properties Tablet and capsule formation 9) Compression properties Acid / excipient choice 10) Excipient compatibility Preliminary screen by DSC, Conformation by TLC POLYMORPHIC COMPOUNDS There are certain compounds that exist in more then one crystalline forms, this property is called polymorphism. Its evaluation is desirable during pre-formulation studies if the drug constitutes the major portion of the dosage form. Only one form of the polymorphic compound is thermodynamically active at a given temperature and pressure. Techniques for investigation for the stable form of polymorphs are microscopy (hot stage microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrophotometer, thermal analysis and dilalo metry.(Brittain,2009) THERMAL ANALYSIS It is the branch of science that deals with the properties of material that change with temperature. For the measurement of such properties various methods are used. the techniques all follow the change of specific physical property by the change of temperature or time in the specifically controlled environment, since moisture and temperature are the basic factors effecting the stability of the pharmaceutical compounds thus we take temperature to measure various parameters.(Menczel,2009) Thermal analysis Instrumental technique for describing various properties General method Acronym Property measured Application Differential scanning calorimetry DSC ?T, differential power input Measurement of kinetics Differential thermal analysis DTA ?T chemistry, pharmaceuticals, polymers Thermo- gravimetric Analysis TGA Mass composition, extent of cure, stability Thermo-mechanical Analysis TMA Length or volume Shear and torsion modulus of films, fibers, lami nates adhesives Dynamic mechanical Analysis DMA Viscoelastic properties rheological properties Dielectric Analysis DEA Dielectric properties isothermal crystallization Nano/micro-thermal Analysis n-TA Penetration, ?T Surface properties of solid dosage form THERMAL ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL MATERIALS AND POLYMERS Techniques such as DSC, TG can investigate the transformation during polymorphic conversion.TGA is often used to measure residual solvents and moisture and solubility of the active materials in solvents. Polymers represent another large are for the application of thermal analysis, analysis of composite material such as glass or epoxy composites, analysis of raw material of packaging, effects of additives used in packaging material determined.TGA can also be used for fiber content determination of the composite. NANO-THERMAL ANALYSIS it is the local thermal analysis technique that allows obtaining understanding of thermal behavior of the materials combined with high spatial resolution imaging capabilities of the Atomic Force Microscopy with a spatial resolution
Monday, September 23, 2019
Turkey political system - Term Paper Example One of the non-Muslim communities is the Greek community. Another community is the Armenian community. A third community is the Jewish community. Recognition of these communities is in line with TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s compliance with the Lausanne Treaty. The Turkey nation includes other homogenous communities. The community includes the 15 million member Kurdish community. Furthermore, the other Turkish groups included immigrant communities. One of the communities is the Circassian community. A second community is the Albanian community. A third community is the Bosnian community. Georgia is another community. Moreover, the Turkish community is ruled by several political parties. One of the parties is the Justice and Development Party (AKP). The Islamic AKP party is a conservative party that espouses democratic ideals. The AKP governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural and societal policies implements democratic religious concepts. Mustaf Kemal Ã¢â¬Å"AtaturkÃ¢â¬ and his Turkey-based concepts (Ataturk Movement) Mustafa Kemal or Ataturk is recognized as one of TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s well known leaders. He founded the Republic of Turkey (Crossland, 1). Ataturk did not espouse the philosophical theories of Karl Marx. He did not propagate the political theories of Lenin. In fact, Ataturk did not directly espouse any philosophical theories. He never borrowed any philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. Moreover, Ataturk did not even create his own unique philosophies. Ataturk was more of a manager than a thinker. Ataturk was more of a pragmatist. Further, Ataturk did not imitate some of the Brazil government leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ positivism philosophies. A pragmatist is a person who decides on a case to case basis, not based on standard policies, theories, philosophies or procedures. Ataturk was a down to earth or practical leader. Ataturk... Turkey today is embroiled in a territorial dispute with the neighboring Cyprus government. The issue arose between the Greek government leaders and TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s AKP government leaders, in terms of their Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon mining. The Greece government ordered the establishment of an exclusive economic zone. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s AKP government felt the establishment of the zone was economically disadvantageous to the Turkish nation. Mining quarrel focused on the drilling of oil in the area. The democracy will produce de-bureaucratization and de-securitization of the Greek and other foreign issues. Further, TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s AKP government prioritized creating cooperation and camaraderie with its Muslim neighbors. Turkey contributed its share to the resolution of the Palestinian-Israeli crisis. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s President Sezer visited Damascus to create close ties with its neighbors. The AKP governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s beneficial relations with Syria irked the United States.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Pleasantville Essay In the movie Pleasantville, a brother and sister from modern day became part of a black and white Ã¢â¬Ë50s television show called Pleasantville. This was done using a special remote given to the main character David, by a TV repairman. In the beginning David believed Pleasantville should remain the same. Pleasantville was his utopia; he thought everything was perfect. His sister Jenn was determined to change Pleasantville. Jenn thought people acted like losers, and wanted them to be Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ . David later realized things should change because people did not show their emotions in Pleasantville, and had no way to express them. When people in Pleasantville showed their emotions, they changed from black and white to color. By the end of the movie, everything was in color because of David. People had learned to show their emotions. The creator of this movie was trying to communicate the message that emotions make things more interesting. This statement is true for Pleasantville and writing. In Pleasantville people would change to color when they showed their emotions. Bill expressed his emotions through painting colorful pictures. David gained his color when he got angry and punched Whitey. Emotions are put into writing to add detail. At Lovers Lane people reading books became colored and the listeners remained black and white. If people incorporate emotions into their writing it will help get the readers attention and make the plot more interesting. This movie relates to our critical analysis essay. The idea of perception versus reality is conveyed throughout the movie. David thought Pleasantville was perfect when he watched it on television. When he became part of the show he found it had many flaws. The citizens of Pleasantville believed there was nothing outside of Pleasantville; in reality there was a lot. In reality, bad things can happen. When the tree caught on fire, the firefighters did not know how to deal with it because there had never been a fire in Pleasantville before. This movie also dealt with the idea of personal choice and the consequences of those choices. In the Ã¢â¬Ë90s, Jenn did poorly in school. She probably could not get into college. She worked hard in school while she was in Pleasantville. In Pleasantville, she had a chance to go to college. Personal choice can also be seen when many people chose to show their feelings and emotions. The consequence was they changed to color.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
E-Learning Sites Essay E-learning has emerged as a revolutionizing concept in 21st century. It has given numerous opportunities to educational institutes and students in the form of flexibility, construction of knowledge and knowledge transfer using electronic media components. Contemporary services are more in need of e-learning facilities especially for educational institutes that aim at providing convenience and flexibility to students with better accessibility to course material/information content. E-learning websites have popularity due to its enormous benefits to individuals; however, raised several ethical and social issues that need to be addressed. E-Learning Sites Growth of internet and advancement in technology integration for supporting application processes has provided an opportunity to educational institutes to move towards e-learning educational facilities. E-learning sites provide user accessibility to course material from diverse places that increases the flexibility and information sharing capabilities of system. Majority of universities have developed e-learning management systems for its students that have multiple advantages both to university and students (Stair, 2008). These learning management systems involve the integration of technology and communication medium to enhance learning processes. Students have access to electronic features routing them to information sharing, customizability of information, presence of electronic contents and downloading features for supporting advance and better learning processes. Considering the advantages of e-learning sites several issues in dimensions of ethics, social, and professional principles arise that require evaluating the functionality and viability of e-learning sites. These issues place consideration on information system developers for proper analyzability and management to restrain the system effectiveness from potential risks associated with such issues. A number of social, ethical and professional issues have arisen concerning the development of e-learning sites for a university. These issues include the exercise of power, data quality, access to data and system, privacy and data protection, intellectual property rights of material available on website, plagiarism and copyright policy, prevention of fraudulent actions by users, equity for users, and impact of such information and communication system on the perception of individuals (Weert, 2003). E-learning Sites and Ethical Issues Electronic data is accessible to users irrespective of geographical boundaries. However, certain restrictions by regulatory authority may restrict the flow of traffic from specific IP locations. Development of e-learning sites although provided many benefits to individuals but also resulted in certain ethical implications for a professional. These ethical issues require proper management in order to maintain the practicability of system. It is essential for professional to analyze the component system of e-learning sites. Site should provide quality data to students based on their educational standard and need; such as availability of research papers and reference sections is being provided to university students. Data quality available on site must be proven for effective information and knowledge transfer ability to users that increase the understanding and enhance the knowledge level at better rate (Azari, 2003). Material available on e-learning websites is exposed to certain ethical challenges which include intellectual property rights; copy/pasting of text highlighting the principles of plagiarism, and use of ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s content without his prior permission which directly affects the legal procedure for cyber theft crime (Azari, 2003). Such issues require maintaining the content material ownership rights and copyright policy in compliance with legal code of conduct. Students are given access to wider range of information and material content uploaded by teachers, and university management for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ flexibility; such material content can be downloaded, easily transformed and integrated into other piece of content. This raises question on ethical responsibility of students for preserving the rights of material available on e-learning site and require considering it as theft, and cheating in case of plagiarised material (Weert, 2003). Cyber-technology provides accessibility to system development content which is exposed to serious threats for modification and alteration that reduces the effective functionality of such e-learning websites (Azari, 2003). Considering the role of e-learning sites in providing rich information benefit to students; viability issues raised on the ethical principles of information issue and subsequent loss risk for other student associated with such malpractices. E-learning Sites and Social Issues E-learning site development also encompasses certain social issues in relation to subjecting ethical obligations. System development professional must ensure that e-learning site for university does not result in discrimination at operative level. At some places, racial and cultural discrimination is observed by restricting the right of specific group to e-learning site (Adams McCrindle, 2008). This results in serious destructive behaviour by students affecting the reputation of university. Focus must be given to equity principles for users to e-learning site functions and materials irrespective of gender, racial or cultural differences. E-learning sites now offer advantages to student to share their views in blogÃ¢â¬â¢s section page on e-learning site. Such functionality components although are encouraging students to be productive in information and views sharing, but in some cases it create discrepancies among students behaviour which results in destructive behaviour action by students (Weert, 2003). It must be ensured that such blog section provides access to students only to filtered blog content. Perception of student is also influenced greatly by the information available on website and communication system that directly impact their behaviour and constructive attitude building. However, in consideration to that social issues strengthen concerning e-learning site; therefore, greater emphasis should be on formal aspects of education. Discriminatory behaviour must be restricted and equitable social practices must be adopted towards providing facility to students irrespective of their social class (Cross et al. , 2002). This would enhance the equity principle for learning and enhance the effectiveness of system. E-learning Sites and Professional Issues A number of professional issues are associated with e-learning sites development. First of all, security concern of sites must be addressed. Plagiarism, data theft, and unauthorized accessed to secure and restricted contents by users must be prevented through proper security system management (Bullen Janes, 2007). Professional issues enlarge concerning the prevention of fraudulent actions by users, and managing the access rights for specific group. Such as teachers panel must not be viewable to students, and students must have access to material only related their subjects. Customizability of features and privacy in relation to intellectual property rights advances the responsibility of professional towards addressing the ethical issues. E-learning sites encompass application system to foster easy access to information content for students. Professional must ensure that system procedure manual is easily conveyable to students and users while maintaining their privacy rights. Copyright policy must need to be formed to address the potential risk of plagiarism and copy/pasting of material irrespective of ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s consent (Adams McCrindle, 2008). Related to this site security and content access must be proactive to potential harms and risks of modification by unidentified identity. Students are more oriented towards cracking the shortcut methods for doing their academic works especially assignments. Hence they prefer copying it from source that can not be detected from plagiarism detection software (Khan, 2005). Including to this, material available on e-learning sites can be changed and uploaded on other e-learning sites without consent of actual teacher especially presentation files. Professionals criticize this activity by claiming it as malpractices and direct theft on the intellectual property of teacher. Hence cyber crime act protect individuals (owners) from such activities and enforce legislations for preventing issues like unauthorized access to e-learning site material resources, protect intellectual property owner rights, and specifies code line for legal obligations on e-learning sites (Cross et al. , 2002). RECOMMENDATIONS Considering the issues specified in the above text following recommendation will enable managing the issues effectively. First of all, a specific user id and password must be assigned to all individuals on equality basis. To limit the unauthorized access student must be allowed to view only contents of courses in which he is registered. To protect the unauthorized use of ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ material downloading option must be removed; only view feature for specific files will allow university to protect intellectual property rights and avoid plagiarism cases (Khan, 2005). Access to data can be secured through encryption of data content which will enable to access only limited feature and restrict the unwanted users to decrypt the high quality data content. In order to effectively manage the social issues associated with e-learning sites complete freedom must be given to students irrespective of their cultural/racial differences. E-learning site should encompass a protection feature to avoid fraudulent actions by users; document sharing feature by students must be refine and only approved featured responses/sharing documents by students must be allowed to visible on e-learning site for user flexibility (Adams McCrindle, 2008). CONCLUSION E-learning sites are attractive solutions for university to manage its need for information and learning material sharing with students. However, certain issues related to security, fraudulent actions, and malpractices by students such as plagiarism content reduce the effectiveness of such system. In order to effectively manage the ethical, professional and social issues for e-learning sites system developer must use contemporary techniques being used by other e-learning sites developers that not only maintains system security but also provides flexibility and customization feature to both students and faculty members while managing the issues related to intellectual property rights, plagiarism, and quality of data availability including accessibility based on equity rights. REFERENCES Adams, Andrew A. McCrindle, Rachel. (2008). Pandoras box: social and professional issues of the information age. Edition: 1. John Wiley and Sons Azari, Rasool. (2003). Current security management ethical issues of information technology. Edition: 1. Idea Group Inc. Bullen, Mark. Janes, Diane P. (2007). Making the transition to E-learning: strategies and issues. Edition: 1. Idea Group Inc. Cross, John A. et al. (2002). Implementing e-learning. Edition: 1. American Society for Training and Development Khan, Badrul Huda. (2005). Managing e-learning: design, delivery, implementation, and evaluation. Edition: 1. Idea Group Inc. Stair, Ralph M. (2008). Principles of Information Systems. Edition: 9. Cengage Learning Weert, Tom J. Munro, Robert K. (2003). Informatics and the digital society: social, ethical, and cognitive issues. Edition: 1. Springerlink
Friday, September 20, 2019
Capacity Of Minors In Contracts A contract involves s a promise between two persons for the exchange of either good or services. A contract signifies the free consent of the parties to the contract to be bound by law. For a contract to be valid, it must have these basic elements: mutual assent, consideration, capacity, and legality. Mutual assent is characterized by offer and acceptance through mutual accent; consideration, on the other hand denotes any form of compensation with something of value for the goods or services traded. A contract between persons, either natural persons or legal persons, who have no capacity to contract can either be voidable or void depending on the case. Legality gives the condition that should be satisfied for a contract to be excised by the law. Illegal contracts are for example those involving illegal activities. For example one cant bring a plea of damages to a court of law for breach of a contract entered into to kill another person. The possible remedies for breach of contract are; consequential damages, general damages, , and specific performance. This paper will examine the capacity to contract as pertains to contracts entered by minors minors. Keywords: capacity, contract, capacity, legality, consideration, mutual accent void/voidable. Capacity of Minors in Contracts Capacity to contract relates to both natural and artificial persons. Although the general case is that an adult of sound mind will have full capacity to contract, they may claim that the contract is not enforceable due to such reasons as undue influence, or mental incapacity at the time of entering into the contract. Contractual capacity also does apply to corporate. The age of a minor may vary from country to country but the most states put the age at 18 years. The genera rule that bound contracts entered with minors are that they are not legally liable for any contract which they enter into whether willingly or not (Koffman Macdonald, 2007 p. 476). This does not however remove the burden of performing the contract for the other person to the contract. If the breach the contract, they are liable to the minor for damages. If however the minor when they attain the age of minority choose to ratify the contract, they are legally bound from the date of ratification. If the minor upon reaching the age of majority chooses to end the contract, he relieves himself of any liabilities that the contract placed on him. There are however some contracts which when the minor enters into, he is bound by. These include the contracts for supply of necessaries, employment or beneficial contracts and those for analogous supplies. There is another category of contracts which are voidable at the option of the minor but are binding on him upon reaching the age of majority and does not repudiate them within a reasonable time after that (Koffman Macdonald, 2007). Among the contracts that form the major part of exception for the general rule of lack of capacity of minors is the contract that relate to provision of necessity. The law require that the other part to the contract to prove that the contract that they entered into with the minor is for necessity (Nash v Inman 1908). Necessities include both goods and services. In chapel v cooper (1844) it was held that a contract entered by a minor to bury his father was a contract of necessity. The case will decide whether the contract is for necessity subjectively and this will even depends on the social status and age of the minor. Generally, the things regarded as necessary are those which a person cant live without such as food but articles for luxury are mostly disallowed irrespective of the class of the infant contractor (Chapler v Cooper per Alderson ). The sale of goods act however defines goods of necessity as those goods sustainable to the condition of life of the minor (peter v Fleming ( 1840)) (Contracts, 2010). In this case a breast pin and a watch chain were considered as necessities. A person cannot rely on the fact that the terms to the contract are harsh or onerous to remove the contract from the generally beneficial category. This was seen in Barnes V. Smethurst where it was the court held that the existence of such terms may make the unenforceable against the minor (Anson Huffcut, 1899). This exception is based on the foundations of the minors obligation to make fair payments for the goods that they received irrespective of the satisfaction that they get from the goods. This removes the minors liability incase the contract is a purely executory one (Nash v Inman (1908)). The second exemption to the general rule relates to employment and analogous contracts. This is based on the value that prevents a minor from seeking skills that will enable them to earn a living. This is the reason why employment and analogous contracts are enforceable on the minor provided that the contract as a whole is beneficial to the minor (Koffman Macdonald, 2007 p. 469). In Clement v London and north western railway co. (1894), the courts held that the contract as a whole was beneficial to the client and prevented him from claiming under the 1880 act since the insurance contract covered him from even those injuries that were not due to the negligence of the employer. It was therefore ruled that on the overall, the contract was to the advantage of the minor. There are some contracts that are considered a beneficial to the minor. These include contracts for services such as those of education, training, apprenticeship. If these contracts contain clauses that are not overly beneficial to the minor, the minors liability to in the contract will be waived such as in De Francesco v Barnum (1889). Although the law gives a minor protection from contractual obligation on them, they are liable under tort and also if they are emancipated. Minors are liable, in tort, provided that the tortuous activity is not one that will not amount to enforcement of a contract. In R. Leslie ltd V Shiell (1914), the court held that the plaintiff could not recover the amount in loan from the minor who had misrepresented his age since the courts would have been enforcing a contract that is not otherwise binding on the minor. This is also the case where a minor guarantees a loan (Koffman Macdonald, 2007). The law also seeks to provide protection to these who deal with minors. If a minor escapes a contract for example for rent, they can be sued for rent that has accrued during their stay in the house but not that part which is not yet due. To protect the suppliers, the law will prevent the minor from claiming the money that they have already paid whether or not the contract was for the supply of necessities (Abbott, Pendlebury, Wardman, 2007). Equity will not allow the minors to seek specific performance against the other party to the contract since equity will not allow for specific performance against minors. This statute and that of subrogation see to protect the other party to a contract with the minor while at the same time seeking to uphold the interests o f the minor (Abbott, Pendlebury, Wardman, 2007 p. 115). Emancipation on the other hand gives the minor some adult rights. Emancipation refers to freeing someone from the control of another. A minor is emancipated from the parents upon getting legally married, when they reach 18 or when in active duty with the armed forces of the United States (Emancipation of Minors). When one is emancipated, their parents no longer have control over their affairs and are also not legally bound to pay for damages the minor causes to others properties. This means that they will be liable for the breach of contract that they enter into regardless of whether they are of necessity or not. The laws reacting to capacity to contract can vary from state to state to state as well as from country to country. In the US, the major variation on the minors capacity to contract is o the age of minority which varies from state to state. However, most states put the age at 18 but this ac vary to up to 21 years in other states. Another law tat varies from individual state is that relating to disaffirmance of voidable contracts. Some states will allow disaffirmance for tort violations while others dont if the consideration cannot be returned. Different countries have different laws regarding minors capacity in a contract and especially as regards to age of minority. Most countries have the ages of a minor fixed at 18. These include countries like New Zealand, Canada and Australia while others disregard the age especially where the minor engages is serious crimes and he is tried like an adult. In the US, the age is 18 but different states will vary the age based on their cultural diversity (Contracts, 2010). The US laws allow the minors to consent on matters affecting them such as on use of contraceptives, abortion and treatment for alcohol and drug abuse. They are also allowed to seek expert help from doctors on such matters as reproductive health and other confidential services that they would rather not do with their parents. They can therefore enter into legally binding contract to get those services. The issue of incapacity applies due to the need to protect the person who is incapacitated (or in the case of companies, the shareholders) but at the same time not treat so harshly the other party to the contract. This is always the case because the incapacitated person may not comprehend the effects that the contact as pertains to the on the rights of the other person to the contract. The laws of capacity of a minor because they help to form legal boundaries that ensure that minors are not exploited. This is especially in regard to minors whose parents have left them vast estates. In such cases, since the minor will not always act in a way that is of best interest to the estates that they inherit, expert trustees are put in charge of taking care of the estate until the person reaches the age of majority when they can make independent and well informed choices. Standardization of the legal age and the rules that govern contracts with minors is important to those who deal with them since although the contract with a minor creates legal liability to the other party to the contract and not the minor, standardized definition of the minor is helpful to avoid losses that accrue due to contracts with incapacitated persons Conclusion The law of contract is especially important since most of the transactions that we carry out on a day to day basis involve contracts. As such it is important to lay guidelines as to when a contract is valid and can be exercised by law and when its void. Contracts with minors on the other hand present special challenges since minors may not always act in their best interests. The laws of different states have well laid down laws that are the basis for dealing with cases that involves minor contracts. Most of these laws are based on UK common law and the law of equity. Equity will seek to protect the other party to the contract from the actions of the minor to ensure that they dont suffer unduly when they deal with the minor. The two important statutes of equity are those based on subrogation and specific performance.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The first article I have chosen is, Ã¢â¬Å"Juncture in the road: Chicano Studies Since: Ã¢â¬Å"El plan de Santa BarbaraÃ¢â¬ by Ignacio M. Garcia. I have chosen this particular article for various reasons. One is because reading the first few paragraphs of the article stirred up many emotions within me. I found myself growing angry and once, again, repulsed by the United States discrimination system. The more knowledge I obtain on the United States, on its past and how it develops today, I can finally say that I resent everything it stands for and embarrassed being part of it. I would rather say that I am a country of oneÃ¢â¬ ¦myself. The second reason for choosing this article, was because it was an easy read for me as well as the topic being discussed was intriguing. The first paragraph gives the readers and idea of the growing interest on Chicano Studies. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s has developed over the course of twenty-six years and obtaining more non-chicano intellectuals that have absolutely no connection thus having no clue if studying the history of Chicanos. Part of the reason for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s sudden interest in Chicano Studies is to integrate it into a larger ethnic study programs. The downfall of integrating the studies is that it places limitations on other courses that intervene with the major academic departments. The new development of Chicano Studies is really an excuse to teach genuine studies and to allow teachers to implement connected programs to receive a permanent status within their careers. Another part of keeping Chicano Studies in succession is to deliberately undermine its true meaning as well as keep it understaffed and under financed. This situation diminishes the programs ability to do community service for further future devel opments. This is critical for the readers to know the show the bias, injustice, and premeditated ignorance of the United States educational system. It also demonstrates that Chicano Studies is not important regardless of the Hispanic population in this supposed Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬ country. It seems as if the Chicano Studies was made only to fail by keeping it under funded and understaffed. By doing so, it has an affect on keeping away good scholars to maintain the historical development of Hispanics in the United States as well as its own history. When the Chicano programs do get a minimal break such as receiving enough funding, gain departmental status, and have courses be part of the general education requirements, there would some body in the shadows sneering at the progress.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Religion and science have always been in direct competition with one another. The ultimate goal of science is to prove the inexistence of God with facts, while the existence in God is simply based on belief and faith. While 95% of the people living on Earth believe in a superior being of some sort, some might say that religion clouds the minds of otherwise logical individuals and makes it impossible for them to pursue the truth of the Universe. Thus, the debate on which view is the right one continues on, while somewhere in the middle stand religious followers who are also scientists. Many people claim that the belief in religion comes simply from the "need of something to believe in". However, it is difficult to argue against the fact that religion does not include its followers in something greater, then just a "need". It allows for an identification with a greater body of religious believers and for the inclusion in the love of a God. The only thing religion asks for in return is faith in its teachings which is made up of their morals and the existence of the God which they cherish and worship. In the movie "Contact", Ellie Arroway represents many scientists in the world. She is torn between religion and science, however she is unable to rely on the assumed truths of the teachings of religions. Science is the search for truth, it allows her to discover the truth for herself. As Palmer Joss later mentions in the movie, the purity of science is not involved in the furthering of technology. Technology is not the God that science seeks, for it seeks to create no God, science does not believe in any sort of God. As religion accepts the truths written in its texts and taught in its teachings, science continues, through research, to search for "the truth of the Universe".
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Our work place policies, procedures, codes of practice and legislation requirements for:- Diversity is respecting and maintaining the dignity and privacy of clients recognizing issues associated with the identity needs of other service users as well as the clients own interpretation of dignity and respect and the right to express his/her own identity, culture and lifestyle. Equality is ensuring people are treat with fairness no what their age, race or gender; treating people according to their individual needs.To protect the rights and promote the interests of clients and employees respect for individuality proving and promoting equal opportunities recognizing individuals needs of care and preferences. Supporting clients to take control of their own life choice and independence. For example I was facilitating a group regarding substance misuse and a client told me she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be there as she never used drugs and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a Ã¢â¬Å"junkyÃ¢â¬ but everyone else did. I explained to the client that alcohol was a drug and that the group was to inform everyone of the potential risk of any drug and that it would be beneficial for her to stay and also within the unit no matter what substance a client used everyone was here for the same reasons. Inclusive practice is about the attitudes, approaches and strategies taken to ensure that people are not excluded or isolated. It means supporting diversity by accepting and welcoming peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s differences, and promoting equality by ensuring equal opportunities for all.I use this daily in my job by including all clients in activities that I am undertaking for example a quiz or relaxation, everyone is welcome and to those who are too poorly I reassure that there will be other activities on during the week. Discrimination is upholding public trust and confidence in social care services and not abusing, neglecting or exploiting clients or colleagues. Not discriminating or condoning discrimination or placing yourself or others at necessary risk.Providing clients and employees, a work place with freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, sex, ability, sexuality or religion. Again I use this on a daily basis as we donÃ¢â¬â¢t discriminate against anyone. Everyone can use our service providing they meet the criteria (ie substance misuser). We have groups for everyone and ask for participation off everyone. If a client was needing any external services ie for religious matters we try to accommodate as best we can.The following legislation relates to all of the above and is used everyday where I work by myself, my colleagues and some by the clients that use our service. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Human Rights Act 1998- This covers many different types of discrimination, including some that are not covered by other discrimination laws. Rights under the Act can be used only against a public authority, for example, the police or a local council, and not a private company. However, court decisions on d iscrimination usually have to take into account what the Human Rights Act says. The Equal Pay Act 1970 (amended 1984)- This says that women must be paid the same as men when they are doing the same (or broadly similar) work, work rated as equivalent under a job evaluation scheme, or work of equal value. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (amended 1986)-This makes it unlawful to discriminate against men or women in employment, education, housing or in providing goods and services, and also in advertisements for these things. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also against the law, but only in work-related matters, to discriminate against someone because they are married or in a civil partnership. Race Relations Act 1976 (amended 2000)- This states that everyone must be treated fairly regardless of their race, nationality, or ethnic or national origins. Ã¢â¬ ¢Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This states that a person with a disability must not be treated less fairly than someone who is able-bodied. Ã¢â¬ ¢Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003. This says it is unlawful to discriminate against people at work because of their religion or belief. The regulations also cover training that is to do with work. Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006- This says it is unlawful for an employer or potential employer to discriminate against you at work because of your age. The Residential Care and Nursing Homes Regulations 2002. This protects the rights of people living in care homes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Health and Social Care Act 2008. Ã¢â¬â This Act established the Care Quality Commission (CQC), whose remit is to protect and promote the right of people using health and social care services in England to quality care and to regulate its provision.In October 2010 a new legislation began that was the Equality act 2010 this involves most of the above legislation and brings them all together into one act. This means that within my workplace each member of staff has to adhere to t his legislation and ensure that everyone that comes into our building is treated with dignity and respect, they are not discriminated against in any way and everyone receives the correct level of treatment as and when needed. The most common forms of discrimination are racial remarks, slurs, being called insulting names and being the butt of hurtful jokes.Studies have found that discrimination, racism and harassment may have significant mental and physical health consequences such as frustration, stress, anxiety, depression, possible nervous breakdown, or high blood pressure that can cause heart attacks. Effects of discrimination physically and emotionally: Depression, Anger, Loss of self-esteem, Isolation, Feeling stressed or unable to cope. Stereotyping is another form of discrimination for example we stereotype a teenager, with a hood up, as being bad and up to no good.This is wrong they could just be cold. But if this teenager is told over and over again that they are bad there is always a possibility that they could think well if I am getting labelled I may as well do it. This is a damaging effect of discrimination and one that happens every minute throughout the world. Inclusive practice is best practice. Health and social care workers demonstrate inclusive practice by working in ways that recognise, respect, value and make the most of all aspects of diversity.Having a sound awareness of and responding sensitively to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse needs supports them in developing a sense of belonging, well-being and confidence in their identity and abilities. And it helps them to achieve their potential and take their rightful place in society. Inclusive practice involves having an understanding of the disastrous impact that discrimination, inequality and social exclusion can have on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and mental health. Having such an understanding ensures appropriate, personalised care and support, thereby enabling an individual to develo p self-respect and maintain a valued role in society.Because people who fail to support diversity or promote equality are usually entirely unaware of their attitudes and the impact of their behaviour, inclusive practice involves reflecting on and challenging oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own prejudices, behaviours and work practices. It also involves challenging those of colleagues and other service providers, with a view to adapting ways of thinking and working and to changing services to build on good practice and to better support diversity and promote equality. If I suspected a colleague was discriminating against a client within the nit I would report this immediately to the nurse in charge and then report it to the clinical lead and management. I would offer the client support and advice and also reassure them that inappropriate behaviour from staff is not tolerated within the unit and I would also offer them a complaints form and reinforce them to report any further incidents to staff on duty immediately. However if I feel I am the one that has been discriminated against I should then raise a grievance in accordance with the grievance procedure or through the bullying and harassment procedure.Information, advice and guidance about equality, diversity and discrimination can be sourced via the internet, companies policies and procedures, employee handbooks, line managers and managers, also from colleagues. I have found working on my NVQ I have had to research a lot. Therefore the internet has been invaluable. It is also amazing what resources I have found at work when asking colleagues advice and found there knowledge a big help when discussing iot with them. Duty of care means providing care and support for individuals with the law and also within the policies and procedures and agreed ways of working with your employer.It is about avoiding abuse and injury to individuals, their family, friends and property. I have a duty of care to safeguard individuals from harm, repor ting concerns of abuse/ neglect this may include evidence or suspicion of bad practice by colleagues or managers or abuse by another individual- worker, family or friend. It means that when someone is a patient or even under care in a residential home or their own, the care giver has a duty to provide whatever care is best for them!They should see that they are treated with respect, provided with help when needed, given medication when required and generally looked after. We have a duty of care to everyone that walks in the building including colleagues and visitors, everyone has there own duty of care to themselves and the others around them. For example if the fire alarm was to sound we have a duty of care to ensure everyone gets out of the building including ourselves. A potential dilemma I have faced recently was that I overheard a conversation between two clients.One client telling the other that they had drunk over the weekend, but had not told a member of staff and when they returned to the unit on Sunday evening, had not registered on the breathalyzer, therefore had not been Ã¢â¬Å"found outÃ¢â¬ . The client did not realise that I had over heard the conversation and went back to his room. I felt it was my duty of care to inform his keyworker of this but felt it was his right as a person to tell her himself, as I had only overheard the conversation, it was not directed at me.I went to see my line manager with a hypothetical scenario and asked her advice. She advised me to speak with the client and let him know that I had overheard the conversation and I was leaving it up to him to decide what he would do. So I did this. I advised the client that I had overheard him and I felt he was putting himself and others at risk because he thought he could do this again and get away with it again and other clients would start to do the same. He agreed with me and asked if I could tell his keyworker he wanted to speak to her.He told her everything and was put on a no pass for 4 days. Another potential dilemma is if I suspect a client has been using drugs or drinking alcohol within the unit I am able to breathalyse or urine screen whenever I feel the need. This is providing a duty of care to all clients. Assessing the levels of risk are always done before a client enters the building, the referrer has to send a level 3 assessment before the client has an assessment in the unit or admitted a level 3 assessment provides all the information about the clients past that health professionals must be aware of.The risk assessment is studied carefully and if the client has a high risk record towards staff or other clients they will be refused an assessment or admission to the unit. Risk assessments are done by a nurse before the client even enters the building if they think they may be a threat to themselves or others they will not be permitted to use our service. If the nurse feels there is no threat and that client is allowed in the unit then a care plan is drafted on admission and the client is made aware of any circumstances that will be involved if any risk is felt throughout there stay.If the client is low to medium we would put in place to appropriate action and steps into place to avoid any staff or other clients in the unit of any risks for example staff members working in pairs and monitoring the client at all times reinforcing to the client any inappropriate behaviour towards clients or staff will not be tolerated and company policies and rules must be followed at all times while they are a res ident in the unit. If the client was to breech company rules or intimidate a client or member of staff they would be immediately discharged and they will be made aware of this on admission.Managing risk associated with conflict or dilemma is done by mainly doing risk assessments. On some occasions this may need to be done on the spot and action taken immediately for example if a trip was going ahead and two clients were arguing you have to think on your feet to calm the situation down firstly and then think of the next step for example saying that neither client is now coming on the trip and explain your rationale behind the decision whether it is that you do not feel the clients will be able to get along outside of the unit and may start arguing again therefore putting themselves and others at risk.Or that you decide both clients come on the trip but think of a care plan for while you are out so everyone is aware of what is happening and what is going to happen. We have had examples of risk on several occasions the main one being if a clients visitor is under the influence on arrival to the unit and not allowed to visit. They must be escorted off the premises as soon as possible and sometimes they become very angry or agitated because of this.If this was to happen I have to think on the spot and work out the best plan of action it could be talking rationally and explaining the nature of the building and that there is no way we could let a visitor in that was intoxicated even if they would cause no harm it is unfair on other clients having to smell the alcohol. I would explain that they could return the next day if this was convenient as long as they were not under the influence. If this did not work I would try to talk to them again and explain if they did not leave then I would have to phone the police.All clients are made aware on admission of the companies complaints policy, forms are available from any member of staff and will also be within the client handbook given on admission. If a client asks for a complaints form then I would ask them if there was anything that I could help with firstly or another member of staff if they wish. If they say no then I would get the complaints form and reiterate the policy that the complaints form should only be given to the person in charge of the building at that time and that if that person can deal with the complaint then this would be do ne if not another member of staff may need to be involved.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Class and Section: IT 230 Group Name: GREGORIO_JOLCANAIN_FRASCO Group Members: Gregorio, Ralph Jolcanain, Sandra Frasco, Harry Nelson Date: August 19, 2012 Company/Office: Sagittarius Mines Inc. Title of Project Stage: Employee Management, Inventory and Purchasing System Sagittarius Mines Inc. REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION AND CONCEPTUAL DATA MODEL Employee Management, Inventory and Purchasing System Sagittarius Mines Inc. I. REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION The Organization Sagittarius Mines, Inc. SMI) is developing the Tampakan Copper-Gold Project in southern Philippine island of Mindanao, involving one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest undeveloped copper-gold deposits. SMI is a contractor of the Philippine Government under the terms of a Financial and Technical Assistance Agreement (FTAA). Business Environment SMI currently operate from offices in Makati City in Manila, in General Santos and Digos cities and in the municipalities of Tampakan, Columbio, and Kiblawan. As at the end of 2010 we em ployed more than 370 staff and more than 1,000 contractors. SMI has a strong track-record as a company that works in a responsible manner.In fact, their commitment to corporate social responsibility in the Philippines has been recognized with numerous awards including the 2006, 2009 and 2010 Presidential Environmental Award, the 2010 Award of Distinction from the Safety Organization of the Philippines and recognition in 2010 as the Outstanding Stakeholder from the Department of Education in Region XII. Sagitarrius Mines Inc. is being managed by a general manager who oversees the Operations Manager, Human Resource Manager, Finance and Commercial Manager, Risk Management andProgram Manager.Operations Manager Human Resource Manager Finance and Commercial Manager Risk Management And Program Manager General Manager General Manager Ã¢â¬â Duties include Increases management's effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; co mmunicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities.Develops strategic plan by studying technological and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff.Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and technical knowledge by attending educat ional workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies. Operations Manager Ã¢â¬â An operations manager runs the day-to-day operations of an organization or business.Her sole purpose is to find ways to make the company more productive by providing effective methods in its business operations. An individual in this position usually prepares program budgets, facilitates several programs around the company, controls inventory, handles logistics and interviews and supervises employees. A person interested in operations management needs to have a strong leadership background and must know how to handle problems quickly and efficiently. In addition, she must have great communication skillsHuman Resource Manager- The Human Resources Manager originates and leads Human Resources practices and objectives that will provide an employee-oriented, high performance culture that emphasi zes empowerment, quality, productivity and standards, goal attainment, and the recruitment and ongoing development of a superior workforce. The Human Resources Manager coordinates implementation of services, policies, and programs through Human Resources staff; reports to the General Manager and serves on the executive management team; and assists and advises company managers about Human Resources issues.Risk Management And Program Manager -Risk and Program Manager advises organization on any potential risks to the profitability or existence of the company. They identify and assess threats, put plans in place for if things go wrong and decide how to avoid, reduce or transfer risks. Risk managers are responsible for managing the risk to the organization, its employees, customers, reputation, assets and interests of stakeholders.They may work in a variety of sectors and may specialize in a number of areas including enterprise risk, corporate governance, regulatory and operational risk , business continuity, information and security risk, technology risk, and market and credit risk. They prepare and administer the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s property and casualty insurance program in compliance with state and federal laws and regulations. Develop and implement safety policies and loss prevention programs. Establish a climate that inspires achievement through direct upervision and motivation of department managers. Lead efforts in goal-setting and long-range planning, and provide leadership and daily direction. Critical Factors for the company needs to succeed are as follows: 1. Constant Availability of gadgets that are being used in the operations and communication 2. Availability of documents needed to monitor the operations. 3. Proper Execution of the Job orders from a department to another department. 4. Efficient and Fast Processing of Reports. EXISTING SYTEMThe current Employee Management, Inventory and Purchasing System are done manually. The Human Resource department, the inventory and the purchasing system are all done using Microsoft Excel for keeping and tracking records. After the hiring process, the profiles of the employees from the resumes of them are encoded and stored at Microsoft Excel and updates it also there, Once the files are needed by the IT department who are in-charged of the releasing and collecting of Gadgets to be used by the company employees, they will just send it through e-mail.As the process for the inventory of the gadgets goes, it is tracked by logging who borrowed and who will be liable for the gadget In Microsoft Excel. The employee who needs the gadget needs to email the IT department for the need of the item. Upon the request, it will be checked if there are available item and further notice is sent to the requestor with regards to the item borrowing. The item is also monitored if it is in good condition and need to be replaced by a new one. All transactions must be logged in Microsoft Excel so it will be document ed.Once there is a need to purchase a new item, the purchasing department must be notified. The purchasing process is also monitored using manual inputting data in Microsoft Excel. As the IT department notified the purchasing department that the need of item is situated, they will assess the ordering of the item from a supplier. And once the item is delivered by the supplier, It will be documented in the Excel that the item is now purchased. Statement of the Project Scope This project will cover the Employee Profiling System, Inventory Tracking System and Purchasing System of Sagittarius Mines Inc. . Employee Profiling : The Proposed system limits only in the maintenance of employee profile and creating fast and efficient employee profile report to all present and past employees whether regular, probationary, contractual, or contractors. 2. Inventory Tracking: The Proposed System focuses on tracking the deployment of items(gadgets), the returning, the condition of item and creating fast and efficient inventory report of all items borrowed and returned by every employee of SMI. 3. Purchasing : item delivery, purchasing order, maintain supplier list, item maintenanceThe Proposed System limits only with the delivery of the Item from the purchasig departemt to the IT department, the purcharing order, maintenance of the suppliers and items. The areas covered by the project are department of IT department, HR department and Purchasing department concerning to profiling, item inventory and purchasing. II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 2. 1 Purchase Order View 2. 1. 1 Employee Requests Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo.Entity: Purchase Order Details Characteristics: PODNo, PPOCreationDate, POOrderDate, EmployeeID Entity: Purchase Item Details Characteristics: PIDNo, Quantity, PODNO, Supplier ID, COst, Remarks, Descrip tion, POItemNo 2. 1. 2 Supplier Delivers Item Entity: Supplier Characteristics: SupplierID, CompanyName, Address, ContactNo, EmailAddress Entity: Purchase Item Details Characteristics: PIDNo, Quantity, PODNo, Supplier ID, COst, Remarks, Description, POItemNo Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus . 2 Deliver Items View 2. 2. 1 Employee Delivers Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo. Entity: Purchase Item Details Characteristics: PIDNo, Quantity, PODNO, Supplier ID, COst, Remarks, Description, POItemNo, Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1 Items View 3. 1. 1 Employee Borrowed Item Entity: EmployeeCharacteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo. Entity: Render Item Characteristics: RenderedItemNo, DateRendered, SerialNo, Employee ID Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1. 2 Employee Returns Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo.Entity: Return Item Characteristics: ReturnItemNo, ReturnDate, Remarks, RenderedItemNo, SerialNo Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1. 3 Employee Lost Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, D eprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo. Entity: Lost Item Characteristics: LostItemNo, DateLost, Remarks, EmployeeID, SerialNo Entity: ItemCharacteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1. 4 Employee Donate Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo. Entity: Donate Item Characteristics: DonationItemNo, DonationDate, Status, EmployeeID, SerialNo Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1. 5 Employee Retire Item Entity: EmployeeCharacteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo. Entity: Retire Item Characteris tics: RetiredItemNo, RetiredDate, Status, EmployeeID, SerialNo Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus 3. 1. 6 Employee Request Repair Item Entity: Employee Characteristics: EmployeeID, FName, LName, EmpAddress, WorkLocationID, PositionID, Status, ResignationDate, TeamNo, DeprtmentNo, StartDate, EndDate, ContactNo, EmploymentTypeNo.Entity: Repair Request Characteristics: RepairRequestNo, RequestDate, RepairStatus, DoneDate, , Employee ID Entity: Item Characteristics: Serial No, DeviceTypeNo, ReceivedItemNo, Cost, Status, ItemType, DateReceived, DeliveryDate, DeliveryStatus III. Logical Design 1. Functional Dependencies Item Table: 3NF SerialNo -;gt; Device Type No. , Received Item No. , Cost, Status, Item Type Device Type Table: 3NF DeviceTypeNo -;gt; Type, Model ,Brand Communication Services Table: 3NF AccountNo -;gt; Item_Serial No. , MIN, IMEI, PlanStartDate, PlanEndDate, Status, Rem arks, PlanCost, Employee ID Inventory Table : 2NFDisposeNo -;gt;DisposalDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo RetiredItemNo -;gt; RetiredDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo RendereditemNo -;gt;DateRendered, Employee ID, Serial No. Donation Item No -;gt; DonationDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo ReturnItemNo -;gt; ReturnDate, Remark, RendereditemNo, SerialNo LostItemNo -;gt; DateLost, Remarks, Employee ID, SerialNo 3NF Decomposition of Inventory Dispose Item: 3NF Field Name| | DisposeNo| PK| DisposalDate| | Status| | Employee ID| FK| SerialNo| FK| DisposeNo -;gt;DisposalDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo Return Item: 3NF Field Name| | RetiredItemNo| PK| ReturnDate| |Status| | Employee ID| FK| SerialNo| FK| RetiredItemNo -;gt; RetiredDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo RenderedItem: 3NF Field Name| | RenderedItemNo| PK| DateRendered| | Status| | Employee ID| FK| SerialNo| FK| RendereditemNo -;gt;DateRendered, Employee ID, SerialNo DonationItem: 3NF Field Name| | DonationItemNo| PK| D onationDate| | Status| | Employee ID| FK| SerialNo| FK| Donation Item No -;gt; DonationDate, Status, Employee ID, SerialNo ReturnItem: 3NF Field Name| | ReturnItemNo| PK| ReturnDate| | Status| | RendereditemNo| FK| SerialNo| FK| ReturnItemNo -;gt; ReturnDate, Remark, RendereditemNo, SerialNoLostItem: 3NF Field Name| | LostItemNo| PK| DateLost| | Remarks| | Employee ID| FK| SerialNo| FK| LostItemNo -;gt; DateLost, Remarks, Employee ID, SerialNo PurchaseTable: 2NF PIDNo -;gt; Quantity, PODNo, Supplier ID, Cost, Remarks, Description, POItemNo PODNo -;gt; POCreationDate, POOrderDate, Employee_Employee ID ReceivedItemNo -;gt; DateReceived, Remarks, PIDNo DeliveryNo-;gt; DeliveryStatus, DeliveryDate, ReceivedItemNo, Datereceived 3NF Decomposition of Purchase Purchase Item Details: 3NF Field Name| | PIDNo| PK| Quantity| | PODNo| FK| Supplier ID| FK| Cost| | Remarks| | Description| |POItemNo| | PIDNo -;gt; Quantity, PODNo, Supplier ID, Cost, Remarks, Description, POItemNo Purchase Order Det ails: 3NF Field Name| | PODNo| PK| POCreationDate| | POOrderDate| | Employee ID| FK| PODNo -;gt; POCreationDate, POOrderDate, Employee ID ReceivedItem: 3NF Field Name| | ReceivedItemNo| PK| DateReceived| | Remarks| | PIDNo| FK| ReceivedItemNo -;gt; DateReceived, Remarks, PIDNo Delivery Item:3NF Field Name| | DeliveryNo| PK| DeliveryStatus| | DeliveryDate| | ReceivedItemNo| | Datereceived| | DeliveryNo-;gt; DeliveryStatus, DeliveryDate, ReceivedItemNo, Datereceived Supplier Table: 3NFSupplier ID -;gt; CompanyName, Address, ContactNo, EmailAddress Employee Table: 2NF Employee ID -;gt; Fname, Lname, Mname, EmpAddress, Work Location, Position ID, Status, Resignation Date, TeamNo, DepartmentNo, Startdate, Enddate, EmploymentTypeNo TeamNo -;gt; TeamName, DepartmentNo, EmployeeID DepartmentNo Ã¢â¬â;gt; DepartmentName PositionNo -;gt; PositionTitle, Level WorkLocationNo -;gt; WorkLocationName EmploymentTypeNo -;gt; EmploymentType 3NF Decomposition of Employee Employeesummary: 3NF Field N ame| | Employee ID| PK| Fname| | Lname| | Mname| | EmpAddress| | Work Location| FK| Position ID| FK| Status| |ResignationDate| | TeamNo| FK| DepartmentNo| FK| Startdate| | Enddate| | EmploymentTypeNo| FK| Employee ID -;gt; Fname, Lname, Mname, EmpAddress, Work Location, Position ID, Status, Resignation Date, TeamNo, DepartmentNo, Startdate, Enddate, EmploymentTypeNo Team: 3NF Field Name| | TeamNo| PK| TeamName| | DepartmentNo| FK| EmployeeID| FK| TeamNo -;gt; TeamName, DepartmentNo, EmployeeID Department: 3NF Field Name| | DepartmentNo| PK| DepartmentName| | DepartmentNo Ã¢â¬â;gt; DepartmentName Position: 3NF Field Name| | PositionNo| PK| PositionTitle| | Level| | PositionNo -;gt; PositionTitle, Level EmploymentType: 3NFField Name| | EmploymentTypeNo| PK| EmploymentType| | EmploymentTypeNo -;gt; EmploymentType IV. Physical Design 1. Team Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| TeamNo| INT| Yes| No| TeamName| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| DepartmentNo| INT| No| No| EmployeeID| INT| N o| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on TeamNo for Primary Key Index_02 on TeamName b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Employee. TeamNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 2. Department Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| DepartmentNo| INT| Yes| No| DepartmentName| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on DepartmentNo for Primary KeyIndex_02 on DepartmentName b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Employee. DepartmentNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 2 Team. DepartmentNO on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 Inserting a New Item: 3. Work Location Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| WorkLocationNo| INT| Yes| No| WorkLocationName| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on WorkLocationNo for Primary Key Index_02 on WorkLocationName b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Employee. WorkLocationNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 4. Position Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable|PositionNo| INT| Yes| No| PositionTitle| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| Level| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on PositionNo for Primary Key Index_02 on PositionTitle Index_03 on Level b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Employee. PositionNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 5. Employment Type Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| EmploymentTypeNo| INT| Yes| No| EmploymentType| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on Employment TypeNo for Primary Key Index_02 on EmploymentType b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Employee. EmploymentType on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: . 1 6. Employee Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| EmploymentID| INT| Yes| No| Fname| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| Lname| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| Mname| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| EmpAddress| INT| No| No| WorkLocationNo| INT| No| No| PositionID| INT| No| No| Status| VARCHAR(20)| No| NO| ResignationDate| DATE| No| No| TeamNo| INT| No| No| DepartmentNo| INT| No| No| StartDate| DATE| No| No| End Date| DATE| No| No| ContactNo| INT| No| No| EmplomentTypeNo| INT| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on EmploymentID for Primary Key Index_02 on Fname Index_03 on Lname Index_04 on Mname Index_05 on EmpAddress Index_06 on WorkLocationNoIndex_07 on PositionID Index_08 on Status Index_09 on ResignationDate Index_10 on TeamNo Index_11 on DepartmentNo Index_12 on StartDate Index_09 on EndDate Index_10 on ContactNo Index_11 on EmploymentTypeNo b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Team. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 2 PurchaseOrderDetail. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 3 CommunicationServices. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 4 RenderedItem. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 5 DisposedItem. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 6 RetiredItem. EmployeeID n DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 7 DonationItem. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 8 LostItem. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cas cade b. 9 RepairRequest. EmployeeID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 7. Purchase Order Details Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| PODNO| INT| Yes| No| POCreationDate| DATE| No| No| POOrderDate| DATE| No| No| EmployeeID| INT| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on PODNo for Primary Key Index_02 on POCreationDate Index_03 on POOrderDate b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 PurchaseItemDetails. PODNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade . Program Logic: c. 1 8. Supplier Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| SupplierID| VARCHAR(20)| Yes| No| CompanyName| VARCHAR(50)| No| No| Address| VARCHAR(80)| No| No| ContactNo| INT| No| No| EmailAddres| VARCHAR(30)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on SupplierID for Primary Key Index_02 on CompanyName Index_03 on Address Index_04 on ContactNo Index_05 on EmailAddress b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 PurchaseItemDetails. SupplierID on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 9. Item Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| SerialNo| VARCHAR(45)| Yes| No| DeviceTypeNo| INT| No| No|ReceivedItemNo| INT| No| No| Cost| DOUBLE| No| No| Status| VARCHAR(45)| No| No| ItemType| VARCHAR(45)| No| No| PIDNo| INT| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on SerialNo for Primary Key Index_02 on Cost Index_03 on Status b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 CommunicationServices. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 2 RenderedItem. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 3 DisposedItem. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 4 RetiredItem. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 5 DonationItem. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade b. 6 RepairRequest. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict n UPDATE Cascade b. 7 LostItem. SerialNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 10. DeviceType Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| DeviceTypeNo| INT| Yes| No| Type| VARCHAR(20)| No| No| Model| VARCHAR(20)| No| No| Brand| VARCHAR(20)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_0 1 on DeviceTypeNO for Primary Key Index_02 on Type Index_03 on Model Index_04 on Brand b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Item. DeviceTypeNo on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 11. Purchase Item Detail Field Name| Data Type| Primary Key| Nullable| PIDNo| INT| Yes| No| Quantity| VARCHAR(45)| No| No|PODNo| INT| No| No| SupplierID| VARCHAR(20)| No| No| Cost| DOUBLE| No| No| Remarks| VARCHAR(100)| No| Yes| Description| VARCHAR(100)| No| No| POItemNo. | INT| No| No| DateReceived| DATE| No| No| DeliveryDate| DATE| No| Yes| DeliveryStatus| VARCHAR(45)| No| No| a. Indeces: Index_01 on PIDNO for Primary Key Index_02 on Quantity Index_03 on Cost Index_04 on Remarks Index_05 on Description Index_06 on POItemNo Index_07 on DateReceived Index_08 on DeliveryDate Index_09 on DeliveryStatus b. Referential Integrity : b. 1 Item. PIDNO on DELETE Restrict on UPDATE Cascade c. Program Logic: c. 1 V. Final Class Diagram