Wednesday, July 31, 2019
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s funny how everyone is constantly going, getting stuff done. You go from the beginning of freshman year to sophomore year in the blink of an eye, where does the time go? When does the time matter? It feels as though once I get one task accomplished IÃ¢â¬â¢m expected to fulfill the next; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a never-ending cycle. With busy schedules that consist of wake up, get ready, go to school, go to work, eat, homework, clean, and so on, how could we have the time to simply just stop and think. By the time we have completed the lengthy list of daily tasks we are simply too exhausted or tired to sit down and reflect over our day. Some days I go home and honestly I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you what I had for lunch. On top of my classes I also participate in Dance, Robotics, and a full time job. One of my close friends has FFA, FCCLA, volleyball, Basketball, Track, and all AÃ¢â¬â¢s. We busy ourselves with daily schoolwork and extracurricular activities to the point that we are simply just trying to climb out of the mounds of papers and piles of athletic shoes just to crawl into bed out of pure exhaustion. What happened to the days where we had playtime? Would we even know what to do with it? If you sat our grade together in a room and took away our phones, homework, worries, sport practices, and all other distractions, what would we do? Honestly the last time I had absolutely nothing to do I just took a nap. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s almost pathetic when I was little I was creative with my time I had a big imagination and was loaded with curiosity and energy, now I just nap. I remember the blankets draped over chairs to make forts and drawings cluttering the fridge. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s sad to see that napping is the way I prefer to spend my small amount of unscheduled time. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve somewhat out grown hanging out with my friends ever since they got their cell phones we are together, but we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t, they text all the people they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t with; you get little time in between the pattern of ringers going off. Secrets are no longer kept they are sent through text to anyone willing to give them time. I am not just saying my friends do this I find myself guilty of this too but honestly I really wish it would just stop. I miss the time of late night sleepovers; giggling over boys and gossiping. In the midst of a society centered on technology how could we possibly just step away from it? The little things in life are a blessing and a curse at the same time. They can either make or break your day and there really is not an in between. In 5 seconds you could have a new inside joke with your best friend or you could trip and see half the school laugh at you. Some of the little things that happen throughout the day can make a big impact and only take a small amount of time. We need to reflect on these bits of time I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to fret over them, but just smile over them. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the small things that happen in a day that make our lives good, When you help a friend work out a problem or are there just to let them vent. When you smile and wave at all the familiar faces you see throughout the day. Simply reminiscing with a family member or friend, is one of those moments that you will remember a lot better than the busy daily routine you do have. If we could cut back on the extracurricular activities and put away our phones for a few minutes wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it make us better people? Stepping away from the glare of cell phone screens and pressures of school and just enjoy our last bits of time before being adults sounds wonderful. We just need a small amount of time to enjoy the smaller moments in life. Our time is cluttered with activities and social networking crammed into every waking moment, when does it ever end?
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Nowadays, it is common to see people from diverse background living together in a single territory. Some societies are even lenient in allowing the existence of diversity which could be termed as multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is identified as the co-existence of different cultures in a single bounded territory where in the small group of people of diverse background have the right to practice things that are different from the dominant population and are still accepted as an important part of a whole (Kennedy-Dubourdieu, 2006, p. 1). United States is considered as a land of diversity and a destination to millions of immigrants who are seeking to become a part of the Ã¢â¬Å"American dream. Ã¢â¬ The rise of multiculturalism has been evident in the country since the second half of the twentieth century. Since then various debates have been raised against the fast-paced movement of multiculturalism in the United States. It has been consistently told that there are various drawbacks regarding multiculturalism (Parillo, 2008, p. 167). However, most of the people have always focused on the negative impact of multiculturalism, never realizing that things always have its flipside. This paper sought to explore the positive impact of multiculturalism in the United States. According to Vincent Parillo (2008, p. 167-168), multiculturalism in the United States will not simply fade away. Because every nationÃ¢â¬â¢s strength lies among its people, it should be clearly understood that United States is not an exemption. The diversity of people played a substantial role in the development of United States as a whole. Many immigrants from different countries have come in the United States and contributed much in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution. The coming of age of United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ agriculture and industrial landscape was shaped by past immigrants who were responsible for the creation of transportation systems, cities and labor unions. Likewise, current immigrants have also strengthened AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic state. The technological industry of America rose to its competitive level because of immigrants who have recognized the full potential of these advancements. Apart from these, immigrants from different nations have brought billions of dollars in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy with the help of their businesses, consumerism and occupations. Additionally, the workforce of different sectors in the country has been benefiting from the diverse pool of people who are sharing their knowledge and skills in the union labor. The education system in United States is also not new with the aspect of multiculturalism. After World War II, the colleges and universities in the country has been more diverse. Through the acceptance of multiculturalism in educational facilities, majority of the people become more attentive about the rich concepts of diverse society, politics and economy. Multiculturalism also set a ground for students to give recognition in the works of other people especially in the field of literature. The development of the influence of multicultural literature exposes students to become more understanding in the diversified forms of lifestyle outside America, which means that although there are no firsthand accounts with the actual events, the students are given the idea of how other cultures work, which in a greater scale could contribute to the knowledge of the students of where and how things have originated (Lowe, 2000). Records also showed that educational facilities in the United States that are racially and ethically diverse substantially benefits the students because they are able to learn more in that particular environment and becomes a well rounded person. Students actively participates in the society that is driven with pluralistic and democratic thinking which in the end they could use once they leave the school grounds. In addition, the presence of multiculturalism in American higher education promotes the reduction of the patterns of racial segregation that has been permeating in the school grounds for such a long time. The incorporation of diversity in the curriculum also serves as an opportunity for creating effective interpersonal relationships among students which they could later on use to act responsibly and negotiate on things beyond borders and colors (Clayton-Pedersen and Musil, 2008). Unlike other people from different nations who are able to speak two languages or are considered as bilingual, majority of the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s are monolingual. Because of this reason, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s are placed in a disadvantaged position in the business community and global marketplace which are landscapes that encourages the usage of different languages. Through multiculturalism, the mastery of a secondary language is given priority in different sectors. It was also posted that learning another language enhances the mental mobility of an individual and provide a holistic view of the cultural background of the said learned language. More so, learning a different language creates the whole American society attain the level of maturity and tolerance towards its relations with interracial groups. Thus, it is posted that additional languages through multiculturalism are indications that Americans have met the needs of minorities to find the freedom and opportunity in the Ã¢â¬Å"land of the freeÃ¢â¬ (Parillo, 2008, p. 169). Multiculturalism also diminishes the ignorance and arrogance of AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s towards other interracial groups. Since Americans and other racial groups are sharing together in a single territory, people happen to engage in activities that promote the knowledge about all shades of people. Suppose that an American did not have any encounters with a particular culture, and rely mainly on the news that he or she viewed such as that particular culture has minimal technology and are inclined towards nature. Consistently the American, who was born in a country that is technologically rich and driven towards modernity, would think that he or she is far more superior compared to the people in the said culture. Due to this idea, the individual closes his or her mind to have any dialogue or contact with any of the members of that culture. However, through multiculturalism close contact between the two cultures are possible where in the other culture could be praised for their perspective of maintaining the environment that has been the top priority of many environmentalists while the other culture could be reinforced to understand that the continuous exploitation of the environment for the improvement of their prized technology does not reach the standards of true progressiveness. In the end, there is a meeting of knowledge where in the questions that surround the American is satisfied by the dialogue that is made through multiculturalism (Ainsah-Mensah, 2007). Combating stereotyping as well as racial discrimination is also an advantage of multiculturalism. By discovering and building upon the similarities of every individual as well as acknowledging difference, various minorities in United States are able to break through the color barrier. It is evident that from many sectors across the United State the optimal performance and productivity of every individual, American or individual of color, is enhanced because of the decrease in segregation. And because of this, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s monoculturalism has been translated into a pool of diversity where the maximum potentials of individual contribute to the improvement of every aspect of the nation and the true meaning of democracy and civil rights has been sufficed (Parillo, 2008, p. 68). Apparently there is a continuous increase in the multicultural society in the United States and various changes are taking place. However, it is important to note that the growing number of racial minorities in the country does not always post a negative impact on the nation as a whole. What many do not realize is the fact that the things that are sometimes viewed to be a threat for the improvement of United States could also be an asset. Obviously people are more centred towards the drawbacks of multiculturalism not realizing that multiculturalism has been an important factor in shaping United States. Multiculturalism fosters a better understanding towards people of color. As such, it also bridges gaps undermined by ignorance and promote oneness and synthesis in different aspects of the community. Likewise, it is an important medium that encourages interracial relations. By deeply understanding the impacts of multiculturalism, significant changes for the betterment of the country and its people could be properly attained.
Monday, July 29, 2019
A View of the Impact of Technology on the Participation of Eligible Voters in an Election The Effect of Modern Technology and Voter Turnout TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation has seen the massive increase in modern technology, specifically in the aspect of media. As television and the Internet become more impactful on society, the more attention paid to the radio and newspapers decrease. One of the prominent effects from media use is displayed in the campaign techniques of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ presidential election candidates. The trend change among media outlets is due to the modernizing times. Less American people find it important listen to talk radio and to read a newspaper everyday. It is clear, however, the need to be attached to the computers in their pockets and have their eyes glued to TV screens. I will be testing the idea that the people of the United States of America have a higher inclination to vote if they pay more attention to politics through television and the Internet than they do to the radio and newspapers. This hypothesis contradicts the general thinking among political scientists, however. Commonly, the higher the socioeconomic status of individuals, the more inclination there is to vote (American Psychological Association, 2015). A higher SES indicates the more educated, who are generally more involved in the political process, are more likely to read newspapers. The older generation also tends to rely more on newspapers, as well as talk radio. In order to test my hypothesis, I will use the control variable of education level, separating it into three categories (high school diploma, college graduate and graduate degree). Alexandra Pelosi (2005) inquires about the corruption of the media during the election season, which supports the fact that Americans are trul y less informed about the happenings in politics, even though they have more access. Henry Brady and Richard Johnston (2006) also argue the fact that the increased use in media greatly effects voter turnout. To create the graphs used to explain my hypothesis, I used data sets from ICPSR. The row variable was set to show the different media outlets in which voters paid attention, using the codes C02, C04, C06 and C08. The column variable represented the people that voted in the 2012 presidential election (A01) and the control variable is education (R04). The figures (Figures 1-12) show that the majority of the American population did not vote in 2012 election, regardless of education level. All except the figures regarding attention paid to television news (Figures 4-6). This not only proves the fact that there is a higher voter turnout from those that turn to modern technology for information, but also that television is the favored source of all four mediums. I was most surprised to notice the difference in voted versus not voted when attention was paid to politics in the newspaper (Figures 1-3) because regardless of the education level, the majority did not vote. It was also interesting to see how the voters with just a high school diploma, paying attention to the Internet news (Figure7), voted: the majority did not pay attention to the Internet at all, whereas the college graduate and graduate degree levels had more people paying attention to it. When analyzing the effects of radio news on voter turnout (Figures 9-12), I notice the lack in relationship. Most of the people surveyed either did, or did not, vote regardless of paying attention to the radio. In recent elections, the ways presidential candidates campaign have changed with the modernizing technology. Although all continue to travel around the country building the personal connection with the voters, more ads are put out on television, the majority of it being negative. According to Dingfelder (2012), the American population responds more to negative ads than positive ones. These TV campaigns are frequently used due to the fact that nearly every American home has a television, and is watched on a daily basis. This fact allows a wide range of coverage with minimal effort. When analyzing the data, it can be understood that when it comes to paying attention to media for national politics, the voters with an education level of at least a high school diploma that rely on television news are the ones which have a higher voter turnout, with the Internet of a person with a graduate degree coming in second. The other media outlets, the newspaper and radio, generally have the same outcomes, minimal effects of media outlet on voter turnout. While I used one control variable, education level, there was still the problem of age when focusing on the common knowledge that an older generation pays more attention to newspaper and radio. Age poses a problem because a college graduate can range from 21 to 45 years old, since anyone can have a higher or lower level of education. To further the study, the control variable of age can be tested to see if and how the relationship would change. Splitting the category into two subcategories of 18 to 44 and 45 to 65 will allow a simplification of the data for a clearer result.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Evaluation Report on Oil & Gas Producing nations - Essay Example The trade policies help in enhancing trades for the benefit of economies. Oil and gas industry mainly ties up with the government for the development with the help of monetary and fiscal policies (Mitchell & et. al., 2012). The objectives of Oil and Gas industry is to expand and enhance security of energy and economic, re-distribution of wealth, economic development, which can be achieved by applying the policies of government of Oil or Gas producing nation. With the help of political influence, the government of the Oil or Gas producing nation indulges into commercial practices for increasing the revenues of the nation as well as the economies of scale. For improvement of the Oil or Gas producing nation the government should take the advice of the outsiders for greater expansion (Petroleum Council, 2013). Government are taking relevant advices from the outsiders to seek advice regarding the policies that are implemented by nation. The government implements various taxes and with the help of the advisers, assistance is taken regarding its applicability. The advice from the outsiders can help the government to obtain the new idea as well as strategy of the outsiders and obtain the knowledge of the new technology along with policies relevant. The new idea along with new technology can be beneficial for the economic development of Oil or Gas producing nation. Exploration and development investment is an important concept for the industry and thus considering outsiders view to a certain extent might prove to be effective in this context. Advice from the outsiders can also be helpful for the Oil or Gas producing nation for developing innovative new ideas by incorporating the same for a better market position in the global market based on the trade policies and tax system (European Communities, 2008). With the advice from outsiders, the government of Oil or Gas producing nation can obtain knowledge
Ban the Box - Essay Example Ban the Box Although there are still many arguments regarding the ban the box movement, the major concept is to provide flexibility to the criminals who have been convicted but want to reenter the society and get employed to live a better life. Once they have served their sentence, they have the rights just as the other people of the society. An inclusion in the employment application that a person has convicted a crime in his past is a lifelong restriction which would paralyze the person from starting a new life and living equally in the society. This is also a form of discrimination on the grounds of previous records. One of the major social concerns in the modern world has been employment. People look for new ways to employ themselves and earn for their living. However, one of the many requirements of employment is the past criminal records of the person seeking the job. Many businesses in America have a section in their employment applications which asks whether the person has been trialed i n court ever. This creates a social barrier between those people who have had a criminal record and those who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t. Even though this concept sounds justifiable, it is not. Ban the box movement carried out a campaign giving a second chance to those people who were convicted but wanted to be reemployed and stat their lives all over again, which is nothing wrong. Thus, the name of the movement refers to banning the box, which indicates criminal convictions on employment applications.... The number of people with a criminal record is increasing day by day in America. The prison population has also increased out of which a majority is released every day and others are sent back due to new crimes. Most of the population of prison consists of African Americans which is a challenging aspect for their communities especially regarding the restrictions of reemployment. The more people in prison demonstrate the difficulties in reemployment that a number of people face due to having a criminal record. Even if they tend to seek legal and honest employment, they suffer several barriers; discrimination and inequality being the major (Loeb, 2010). As more and more people are facing this problem, it is affecting the community negatively. The people who have been convicted in the past have families and close relatives who are free to access to their rights and enjoy equality in the society, then why not they themselves. If their families have the rights to prosper and contribute in the society, then everyone has the equal right and opportunity for employment. Employment is one of the basic attributes to live and, thus, it creates a safe community. Having an exception for those people who have had past criminal records seems unfair to many. Incarceration of an individual has led to many benefits and costs to the society such as decrease in crime rates and increase in operating costs of prisons. However, there may be a huge impact of incarceration on employment and earning of the offender after his release. One group of thinkers suggests that the employment of an ex-offender is a high risk as it gives them the tendency to recidivate and repeats their offence. However, the other group of thinkers suggests that
Saturday, July 27, 2019
A Case of Eating Disorder - Essay Example The nutritional counsellor should go ahead to identify the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s positives and strengths and capitalize on them, in JosephineÃ¢â¬â¢s case the counsellor should acknowledge that Josephine takes multivitamins and encourage her to continue doing do. The counsellor goes further and lets the client set her goals including the number of calories that they wish to be taking and the amount of weight they would wish to add. The counsellor then collaborates with the client and comes up with ways that will enable the client to achieve his goals (Treasure, Claudino, & Zucker, 2010). The counsellor should go ahead to point out the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress every time they meet up. Schedules should be convenient to the client. At least three sessions per week for the first eight weeks, two sessions for the next seven weeks and one session for the last five sessions of the twenty-session schedule. Some of the information that can be collected during follow-ups include how many calories t he client is eating per day, the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s weight, the number of vomiting episodes and the number of meals the client is consuming on the daily basis. The previously set goals can be assessed by putting the current performance alongside the set goals. This will enable the counselor to gauge accurately if there is any progress that is being made, whether the client is improving or regressing. It is from this information that the counsellor will collaborate with the client in coming up with new measures that will enable the client to achieve her goals quicker.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Effectivess of Foreign Aid as a Form of Multinational Financial Assistanse - Essay Example This paper presents comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of the financial aid as a form of foreign assistance to the economy of a recipient country. As a condition for aid money, many donors apply conditions that tie the recipient to purchase products only from that donor. In a way this might seem fair and Ã¢â¬Å"balancedÃ¢â¬ , because the donor gets something out of the relationship as well, but on the other hand, for the poorer country, it can mean precious resources are used buying more expensive options, which could otherwise have been used in other situations. A country from the third world that feels difficulties with its budget may turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank or one of the Major Developed Countries (MDCs) for assistance. Since such assistance is usually given on some condition, it involves agreement to modify domestic economic policy.In this case creditor country (or organization) restricts free trade with protectionism in which barriers to imports (tariffs and quotas) are established in order to protect their industries from foreign competition. Government regulations also protect the environment, agriculture and workers of the donor country or organization. It was reported, that 71.6% of American bilateral aid commitments were tied to the purchase of goods and services from the US.Ã¢â¬ That is, where the US did give aid, it was most often tied to foreign policy objectives that would help the US. The origins of the foreign aid policies of the industrialized democracies are complex and varied. ... In the Reality of Aid 2000 (Earthscan Publications, 2000 cited in Shah 2006) reported in their US section that "71.6% of its bilateral aid commitments were tied to the purchase of goods and services from the US." That is, where the US did give aid, it was most often tied to foreign policy objectives that would help the US. Leading up to the UN Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey, Mexico in March 2002, the Bush administration promised a nearly $10 billion fund over three years followed by a permanent increase of $5 billion a year thereafter. The EU also offered some $5 billion increase over a similar time period. History of Foreign Aid Countries of Latin America The Worlds debt crisis of the early 1980's was the culmination of a build up of external debt of developing countries, a large part of which was accounted by a progressively rising short-term debt. The debt of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) was triggered largely by demands from the balance of payments effects of the oil crisis that started in 1973/74. The debt build up became more apparent towards 1980 when third world borrowers resorted to rolling over their debts. (Stambuli 2002) A combination of very tight internal fiscal position and increasingly fragile balance of payments, most developing countries contracted new loans to liquidate maturing loans. In some cases, entirely new loans were contracted to service interest only. At the same time bankers in the western world ignored signals of an imminent debt crisis and remained more than willing to refinance maturing loans of developing countries, but with shorter maturities. In this process, third
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Comparative paper - Essay Example This paper aims to particularly focus on how the vivid depictions of the Nazi and Soviet crisis in both books have been instrumental in providing global readers a wide-eyed awakening to a path to peace and to a future hope of minimizing global and political violence. To achieve this would mean understanding the rationale and causal effects of the perpetrations of the inhumanity in the genocidal murders and the grueling experiences in the Soviet prison camps, and eventually rethinking whether the same would have been possible were it not for the modern methods that were adopted to further brutalize the population. Arendt and Solzhenitsyn not only witnessed the tragic events of the mid-twentieth century, both of them had first hand experiences of the horrendous fates of the era. These particular events in both their lives have led them to write on Eichmann and The Holocaust and One Day In The Life of Ivan Denisovich, respectively. Several researches have probed on the questions of how and why the holocaust happened and why of all places did it occur in Germany. The book on the Holocaust provided several excerpts from Arendt's previous commentaries on the trial of this Nazi named Adolf Eichmann, a Gestapo chief, who later history would place as the man responsible for the mass extermination of all the Jews who were held in concentration camps. While many writings have ascribed the root cause of the holocaust to that of the anti-Semitic views of Adolph Hitler, Arendt in her book pinned the guilt to Eichmann, after the arrogant Eichmann himself openly boasted that he would die laughing with the feeling of great satisfaction in having brought millions of Jews to their death. There were a number of cultural and historical issues that evolved from the trial of Eichmann and most were considered either as pernicious to or are erosions of the justice system. Amongst the European countries, it is easily noticeable that in the twentieth century, Germany had the most radical form of capitalism that would in effect, exclude all other socialist labor movements. This fascism has been characterized by anti-Semitism and extreme racism. Due to this inherently murderous ideology for an elect race, the Jews eventually were scorned upon to be an inferior race. Arendt concludes in her book that the hanging of Eichmann was justified for the reason that he had supported and executed the policy of the Reich to be a superior race, ultimately having the effect of being the only ones who can inhabit the earth. The book of Solzhenitsyn sets the story on the Soviet labor camp and describes an entire one day in the life of the prisoner Ivan Denisovich Shukhov. This literary masterpiece was the first ever to openly give an account of Stalin's repressive governance. This book made known that the prisoners in the Gulag system were never allowed to leave the camps despite the end of their prison terms. The theme created in this book focused on authoritarian oppression and the many difficult ways of surviving labor camps, especially from the cruelty of the prison officials. Through Ivan Denisovich Shukhov, Solzhenitsyn has provided the world with the many tragic and traumatic experiences that a prisoner suffered in the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Masraf Al-Rayan - Essay Example Masraf Al-Rayan is an Islamic banking that is concerned with financing, investing and other activities like brokerage. The bank is based in Qatar, and it is an international firm. The business model of the company is that it operates in corporate banking, retail banking and lastly through asset management. The corporate banking involves corporate finance and other advisory services that are needed by the customers. In corporate banking, the management is concerned with how capital is restructured, capital raising and valuation of the customers when they need loans to expand their businesses as well as mergers and acquisition. Additionally, it is also concerned with specialized investments and project finance among others. The next business model is the retail banking that ensures that the bank considers current savings and the customer deposits accounts. The retail banking also plays a significant role in ensuring that it is financing the credit card for the customers, checking the kids account and ensuring that it is updated to the month the customers have paid (Mishkin and Eakins, 2009). It also ensures that the pay and the prepaid cards are financed fully so that customer complaints are reduced and ensure efficiency in the company. It plays a critical role in ensuring that private banking products and services are offered to the customers. The last business model is the asset management for the customers and the bank assets that they have been acquired through credit or buying cash. It also ensures that cash management is controlled so that customers can get the capital any time that is required as long it is business working hours. Business planning and financing is the role of the asset management department. The aim of the department is to carry valuation and then fund the business so that the bank and customers can gain from those investments. The financial brokerage makes it possible for the bank to buy real estates and later sell them to the customers
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Value of Diversity in the workplace Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Value of Diversity in the workplace Paper - Essay Example Looking at the demographic analysis of our customer base we realized that we had been way off the mark as far as the targets and the results were concerned. The potential turnover was huge considering the Hispanic population count in the territory. We could have had double the turnover and did not know what we were doing wrong or what more we could do to include the target population. This put question mark not only the results but also on the efficacy of the funds spent on the campaign, which did not achieve the desired results, and as a corollary, the achieved results would have been there even without this added expense. It was a classic case of blind leading the blind. We had got somewhere but did not know how and it was not where we wanted to be in the first place. The days that followed were very critical for all of us including the advertisement agency hired for creating awareness about the product amongst the target population. Numerous brain storming sessions took place; we tried out all the tricks in the book to come up with a credible hypothesis of what had happened and the best way forward but could not come up with any plausible conclusion. There was a Hispanic salesman on our team. He was very quiet, conscious of his "different' background and mostly kept to himself.
Imperialism and Manhood Essay Study question 1. 2. 3. To Roosevelt, the idea of race suicide was closely interlinked to manhood. Not only would the American men face competition from immigrant workers and be unable to provide for more children: thus leading to an excess of inferior immigrants but the American man would also be related to the impotent American man, unable to create more children. This would lead to the raceÃ¢â¬â¢s elimination Race and Immigration 1. It allowed individuals to distinguish and separate themselves from immigrants thus creating a barrier that showed them as undesirable. 2. Certain policies and laws were created to separate the Chinese from other groups: Chinese Exclusion Act. 3. This act set a precedent on the treatment of other foreigners that would enter America. Urban Politics and Culture 1. It is preferable to have a community that has a degree of refinement than to live in one that is full of poverty. 2. The wealth should be divided amongst the immediate family to a degree that does not surpass them into leading unfulfilling and lazy lives. The rest should be distributed for the benefit of society. 1. Having undergone poverty himself, Riles shows stereotypes but presents them in an entertaining way to the audience. Also he mentions the roles these different cultures play in merging with the American way of life. 2. Riis and Carnegie are similar in their opinion that the poor exist and cannot be ignored but it is only the rich who can provide them with relief. Cultural Encounters in the Far West 1. The Bison went into extinction because of the cold and droughts bought in by the changing environment and human influence which resulted in colonial expansion that bought in new diseases and animals. 2. It was not the nomads alone who hunted the bison. They sold the animals to the Euro-American invaders. 1. Blacks could not vote unless their grandfathers had not been voters before the Civil War, literacy tests had to be passed, fees was charged for voting and democrats (always white individuals) were the only ones allowed to vote. 2. The South contained individuals who had the deepest hatred for the blacks which led the lynching in this area to be the worst. 3. Separate schools, hospitals, accommodations and even entrances were given to the two groups. Often enough the blacks were provided no facilities by certain states. 4. They decided to test out the marginzalation itself by acts like the one committed by Homer A Plessy Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia Website 1. Minstrels would perform music with black faced performers in the quest to ridicule black people. Also caricatures were made which were printed in novels and plays. 2. Churches taught that blacks were inferior. Politicians gave speeches supporting segregation and writers also wrote against the black man.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Aim and objectives of different type of businesses Essay When a business first starts trading it has few loyal customers and no reputation. The most likely objective for a start up business is simply survival. As the business grows and begins to win market share, the aim may shift towards expansion and increasing profits. Without aims and objectives there is no meaning to the business. The objective of both things to make business work even better than what it would normally do. An aim Where the business wants to go in the future and its goals. It is a statement purpose. Like want to grow the business in to Europe Objectives- give the business a clearly defined target. Plans can then be made to achieve these targets. This can motivate the employees. Its also enable the business to measure the progress towards its started aims The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria: Specific -clear and easy to understand. Measurable i.e. able to be quantified. Achievable possible to be reached. Realistic not pie in the sky. Time bound associated with a specific time period. An example of a SMART objective is to increase profits 10% within the next 12 months. SMART objectives allow the performance of business to be identified. Purpose- the purpose of having aim and objectives is to plan a way forward which will help them to establish the future state of works in other word, how their business will be in a few years time part of this handle is planning. So they have an uncertain concept that how they will achieve that certain goal and status in the business in few years time Another purpose of setting aims and objectives is to measure the performance, for example, how much profit they have made in the last year, so they know that they are doing better or worse than last year. They will provide information to those who are interested, which will lead to encourage them to do better. Break even- is the point at which cost or expenses and revenue are equal. For example, if a business sells fewer than 200 tables each month, it will make a loss, if it sells more, it will be a profit. With this information, the business managers will then need to see if they expect to be able to make and sell 200 tables per month. Survival- Diversifying- diversify your business by natural progression. For instance, if you sell menÃ¢â¬â¢s shirts, adding ties and cufflinks to the range are an obvious next step. More radically, you extend the brand by offering a much wider range of products that will nonetheless appeal to the same customers. Alternatively, you can use the strength of brand to move into new markets. Cost cutting- here is significant ways to save money without compromise: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time- As a small business owner, you put in a lot of hours, but time is still a limited resource. Wasting time can cut into your sales and hurt your bottom line. As a general rule, anything that you can implement to save time will also save you money in the long run. Cut Out Paper- According to research by Xerox, about 40% of office paper is discarded within 24 hours of anyone printing on it. If you add up how much you spend on printing supplies, paper, and labor, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll quickly see that using electronic file storage can save you loads of money. Shop Around for Insurance There are a lot of great ways to lower your insurance costs, but the most important step is to find and compare insurance policies. You should always be looking for the best rates out there, especially at renewal time. http://www.slideshare.net/tariqmehsud/nikes-presentation http://education.cambridge.org/media/576464/business_and_management_for_the_ib_diploma___ca\mbridge_education___cambridge_university_press_samples.pdf
Sunday, July 21, 2019
L. Pisonis Nut Oil Extraction The search for new crops to provide vegetable oils for use in the industry and also for human consumption is growing increasingly over the past two decades. A rapid search on Web of ScienceÃ¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ platform present more than 19200 results related to nuts, more than 7600 documents are related to edible oils, and more than 22000 results associated with vegetable oil. Additionally, the published items regarding vegetable oil increased from 282 in 1996, to more than 1930 in 2016 proving the growing interest by the scientific community in such field of study . Several Brazilian seeds/nuts species, especially from the Amazonian area have been studied during the last years and most of them were shown to present bioactive compounds and also potential as functional foods -. Nevertheless, some other species are not well-known or were not summited to any further study to elucidate other characteristics. Lecythis pisonis Camb., a Lecythydaceae tree that grows in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and in the Guyanas, commonly known as sapucaia provide nuts particularly similar with that of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa). The delicious edible kernels of sapucaia present a characteristic sweet flavor, being considered more digestible than Brazil nut . In addition to the economic and ecological importance of sapucaia, often used to shade cocoa plantations in Brazilian agroforestry systems , the nuts from L. pisonis are a valuable source of macro and micronutrients, essential amino acids, minerals such as P, K, S, Mg, Ca, Mn, Ba, Zn, Fe, Sr, Cu, B, Al, and Cl , , and also fibers . Furthermore, the sapucaia nuts constitute a relevant source of lipids, about 51-64% , , , , in which there is a predominance of the linoleic acid (essential fatty acid). Although sapucaia can be considered a potential crop to provide raw material for the production of vegetable oil, the available papers that studied the nuts have mostly focused on the mineral and fatty acid profile , , , , , and the latest reports are limited to some agronomic, microbial and pharmacological aspects , -. Vegetable oils are widely utilized in many applications such as food, cosmetic, pharmaceutics, and biofuel industries. Consequently, stability tests, rheological essays, phase transitions and other properties of the oils should be well characterized to optimize processing conditions and energy inputs , . No reference has been found regarding the total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, thermal and rheological characterization of sapucaia nut oil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the sapucaia nut oils extracted by Soxhlet and Bligh Dyer means and evaluated for their fatty acid composition, rheological behavior, and thermal properties by using DSC and TG/TGA analysis, total phenolic content, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability by Rancimat in addition to Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). 2.1 Chemicals Other reagents used in the experiments were of analytical grade. The aqueous solutions were prepared using ultrapure water. 2.2 Samples Lecythis pisonis nuts were harvest from a crop area located in the city of AraguanÃ £, MaranhÃ £o State, Brazil. The nuts (Fig. 1) were dried in an air-circulating oven (Soc. Fabbe, Brazil) at 40 Ã °C for 24 h. Nutshells were removed manually using a stainless steel knife and then submitted to freeze-drying (Liotop L101, Liobras, Brazil) to remove the residual moisture. Prior to the oil extraction, the nut samples were crushed for 30 s with the aid of a stainless steel knife grinder (MA630/1 Marconi Ltda., Brazil). 2.3 Extraction of nuts oils The oil content of L. pisonis nut samples was extracted by the Bligh Dyer method described in AOCS Ba 3-38 method, and also using n-hexane with Soxhlet apparatus (VidrolaborÃ ®, Labor Quimi, Brazil) according to American Oil and Chemical Society Official Method (1997). Oils were named LP1 and LP2, respectively. After the oil extraction, solvents were removed at 43 Ã °C under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator (Model 801, Fisatom Ltda., Brazil). Samples were dried at 45 Ã °C in an air circulating oven (Solab, Brazil) and then flushed with gaseous N2 before storage. The oils were kept in an amber glass and stored at -10 Ã °C until further analysis. 2.4 Analytical determinations 2.4.1 Water content and apparent pH Water content was measured by volumetric Karl Fischer titration using a titration system (V30 Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) . The determination of the pH was performed according to Pena Muniz et al. (2015), as recommended by the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance without previous dilution of the oil, with the aid of a digital pH meter (Model PG1800 Gehaka) at 25 Ã ± 2 Ã °C. The results represent the mean of three measurements. 2.4.2 Measurement of fatty acid composition Fatty acid composition of fresh L. pisonis oils was investigated according to AOCS Official Method Ce 1a-13  by using a GC-MS system (GC-2010) coupled to a mass spectrometer (GCMS-TQ8030) and automatic injection system by headspace (Shimadzu, Japan). Oil samples solubilized with hexane were methylated as described by AOCS Ce 2-66 and then injected into a capillary HP88 column (60 m ÃÆ'- 0.250 mm i.d., 0.2 ÃÅ½Ã ¼m film thickness, Agilent Technologies) using helium as carrier gas (0.64 mL/min). Oven temperature was programmed to be 175 Ã °C (isothermal) and the detector was held at 250 Ã °C. An aliquot of 1 ÃÅ½Ã ¼L of the sample was injected using the split injection mode (1:100). Fatty acid composition was expressed as the percentage of the total peak area of all the fatty acids in the oil sample. 2.4.3 Rheological studies Rheological measurements of oils were performed according to Teixeira et al. (2016), by using a Haake Mars II (Thermo Electron GmbH, Germany) rheometer connected to a thermostatic bath (Haake K15), a thermo-circulator water unit (Haake DC5B3) and a Peltier temperature control (Haake UTM Controller). A sensor cone-plate (C60/2 Ã °Ti L) with a diameter of 60 mm and a cone angle of 2 Ã ° was used. Samples remained in the rheometer for 5 min prior to analysis, and sampling was carried out in duplicate. The following measurements were performed: i) flow curve ( = 0.01-500 s-1, t = 300 s); ii) dynamic stress sweep (Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ = 0.01-100 Pa, Ã Ã¢â¬ ° = 1 Hz) and subsequent dynamic frequency sweep (Ã Ã¢â¬ ° = 0.1-100 Hz, Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ = 1.0 Pa); and iii) temperature sweep (T = 10-60 Ã °C, t = 1440 s, 2 Ã °C/min and 60-10 Ã °C, t = 600 s, 5 Ã °C/min; Ã Ã¢â¬ ° = 1 Hz, Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ = 1.0 Pa). Temperature sweeps were performed at a constant tension of 0.5% in the Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR). The samples were covered by using a sample hood in order to avoid interference of the ambient temperature. The coefficient of determination (R2) and chi-square (Ã Ã¢â¬ ¡2) were chosen to evaluate the fit of the Ostwald-de Waele (Eq. (1)) and Herschel-Bulkley (Eq. (2)) models to the experimentally obtained flow curves: Ostwald-de Waele (OW) (1) Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ = + ()nH Herschel-Bulkley (HB) (2) where Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾ is the shear stress (Pa), is the shear rate (s-1), Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾0H is the HB yield stress (Pa), K and KH are the consistency index (PaÃ ·sn), and n and nH are the flow behavior indexes (dimensionless). The effect of the temperature on apparent viscosity was evaluated according to an Arrhenius type equation (Eq. (3)), using a shear rate of 53.4 s-1. (3) where is the apparent viscosity at a specific shear rate, is the preexponential factor, is the activation energy (J.mol-1), is the gas constant (8.31 J. K-1 . mol-1) and is the absolute temperature (K). 2.4.4 Oxidative Stability Index The oxidative stability index (OSI) was estimated in a Metrohm Rancimat model 743 (Herisau, Switzerland), following the American Oil Chemists Society Official Method Cd 12b-92 . Briefly, increasing water conductivities were continually measured while air (20 L/h) was bubbled into the oil (3 Ã ± 0.1 g) heated to 110 Ã °C and their volatile compounds were collected in water. The time taken to reach the conductivity inflection time was recorded. IP was registered by Rancimat 743 PC Software 1.1. 2.4.5 Infrared spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were determined by using a Vertex-70 spectrometer (Bruker, USA) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory, at 25 Ã °C. The oil samples were placed uniformly in the ATR crystal (1.5 mm active area). The FTIR spectra were recorded in the wavenumber range of 4000 to 600 cmÃâ Ã¢â¬â¢1 with a spectral resolution of 4 cmÃâ Ã¢â¬â¢1 . 2.4.6 TG-TGA Thermal decomposition TGA analyses were performed in TGA 4000 equipment (PerkinElmer Inc. Waltham, USA). Oil sample (~10 mg) was placed into the platinum pan and then placed in a furnace. The sample was heated from 30 to 750 Ã °C (10 Ã °C/min) in the air atmosphere (70 mL/min flow rate) or under a nitrogen atmosphere. Data on the weight changes of oil samples were obtained from the PyrisÃ¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ software. TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves were further analyzed by using Origin 8.6 software (OriginLab, Massachusetts, USA). The thermal stability was measured from the extrapolated onset temperature of the first step of thermal decomposition from respective TG curves, by using the beginning and the peak temperature of the respective DTG peak, as the temperature limits of the data analysis software of the instrument. 2.4.7 DSC Analysis For DSC analysis, a DSC 8500 (PerkinElmer Inc. Waltham, USA) equipped with PyrisÃ¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ software was used. Nitrogen (99.99% purity, White Martins, Brazil) was the purge gas (20 mL/min). The DSC instrument was previously calibrated with Indium (m.p. 156.6 Ã °C, ÃÅ½Ã¢â¬ H = 28.45 J/g). The sample was weighed into an aluminum pan and sealed. An empty hermetically sealed aluminum sample pan was used as the reference. In order to reduce temperature gradients, the sample mass was kept small (~ 9.0 mg). The methodology applied was adapted from Zhang et al. (2013). For cooling and melting curves, the samples were first rapidly heated to 80 Ã °C (30 Ã °C/min) from room temperature and held for 10 min. Then, the samples were cooled to Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢80 Ã °C (10 Ã °C /min) and held for 10 min to make them fully crystallized, then heated to 80 Ã °C (5 Ã °C /min). To study the effect of the cooling rate on crystallization, samples were rapidly heated to 80 Ã °C (30 Ã °C/min) from room temperature to erase the crystallization memory, and held for 5 min, then the samples were cooled to Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢80 Ã °C at the cooling rates of 2 Ã °C/min, 5 Ã °C/min and 10 Ã °C/min, respectively. The cooling thermogram was recorded. For investigating melting profile of L. pisonis oils under isothermal crystallization, the samples were heated at 80 Ã °C (30 Ã °C/min) for 5 min and then cooled (100 Ã °C/min) to a preset temperature (Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢10 Ã °C, 0 Ã °C, 10 Ã °C, 20 Ã °C), and hold at that temperature for 10 min for crystallization, then heated to 80 Ã °C (5 Ã °C/min). The melting thermogram was recorded. PyrisÃ¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ manager software was used to calculate the parameters of crystallization and melting, enthalpies, and the solid fat content (SFC) which was estimated based on the integrated area under the melting curve . To measure the cloud point of the oils, the cooling curves at the rate of 2 Ã °C/min were used. The cloud point was the onset temperature of the initial small exothermic peak on these cooling curves . 2.4.8 Total phenolic compounds Contents of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay in methanolic extracts of vegetable oils using microplates technique ,with gallic acid as a standard for the calibration curve. The absorbance at 720 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer (Tecan Nanoquant InfiniteÃ ® M200, Tecan Trading AG, Switzerland) after reaction with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the alkaline medium stand in the dark for 1 h. Contents of the TPC were expressed in mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of oil. 2.4.9 Antioxidant essays of the oil extracts The free radical scavenging evaluated by the DPPH assay was determined in triplicate using the method proposed byBrand-Williams et al., (1995). The absorbance at a wavelength of 517 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer (Tecan Nanoquant InfiniteÃ ® M200, Tecan Trading AG, Switzerland). ABTS scavenging activity of oil extracts was determined in triplicate using the method described by Re et al., (1999). The absorbance at 734 nm was measured. The total antioxidant potential of the oil extracts was performed using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay . Measurements were performed using the spectrophotometer at 593 nm. The absorbance of the samples was compared to a standard curve (100-1000 Ã µmol/L) and results expressed in mmoL Trolox equivalent per g of oil [mmol TE/g]. All the essays had minor changes as proposed by Zielinski et al., (2016). The determinations were performed in triplicate. 2.5 Data analysis Origin 8.6 software (OriginLab, Massachusetts, USA) was employed to data treatment and graphs. Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, Brazil) was used for statistical analysis, including means and standard deviations (SD). The experiments were carried out in triplicate. 3.1 Water content and apparent pH As expected for this type of raw material, sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis) oil (SO) samples presented very low water content, to be specific 0.077 Ã ± 0.006 %, and 0.097 Ã ± 0.006 % for LP1 and LP2, respectively. Regarding the apparent pH of SO, LP1 presented 5.720 Ã ± 0.036 and LP2 showed a pH value of 5.353 Ã ± 0.040. 3.2 Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties Concerning the content of phenolic compounds in SO, LP1 presented higher TPC content than LP2(Table 1). In this regard, SO present greater TPC content (1.418 mg GAE/100 g, average value) than almond oil (0.95 mg GAE/100 g), however, Brazil nut has twice the content of TPC (3.64 mg GAE/100 g) than sapucaia, and macadamia presents fifteen times more TPC (22.5 mg GAE/100 g) . In general terms, the sample LP1 obtained by a cold extraction process showed better antioxidant characteristics than LP2. Natural antioxidants that might prevent biological systems from reactive oxygen species are generally present in vegetable oils as phenolic compounds, phytosterols, tocopherols (Vitamin E) and carotenoid compounds . The results found by in vitro antioxidant assays present some variations that might be assigned to the different mechanisms in the analysis (Table 1). These assays are grouped in the electron-transfer category and there is some specificity among them. DPPH and ABTS radical cations have the same mechanism and present characteristic color which can be monitored by a spectrophotometer when the oil extract is mixed with a reactant solution and the reduced form of the radical shows a loss of color as a result of the donation of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, in the presence of antioxidants compounds, FRAP is characterized by electron transfer ability, tha t results in the reduction of iron ions  3.3 Fatty acids profile Fourteen different fatty acids (FA) were identified in the studied SO (Table 2). The oils were composed predominantly of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (61-73%), in which 39.08-45.66% were monounsaturated (MUFA), and 21.95-27.63% were comprised of polyunsaturated (PUFA), such as linoleic and ÃÅ½Ã ±-linolenic acids, which have been proved to effectively reduce the risk of cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes . Such FA profile is rather common for Brazilian edible nuts , , which reinforces the idea of consuming more nuts rich in fatty acids beneficial to human health, since the main commercial source of PUFA, such as Ã Ã¢â¬ °-3 and Ã Ã¢â¬ °-6 has been fish and fish fat . Among the MUFAs, oleic was the major FA found in SO, ranging from 35.54-44.28% for LP2, and LP1, respectively. Important to note that oleic acid is the primary Ã Ã¢â¬ °-9 FA in the human diet, and it is the predominant MUFA in many oil nuts, totalizing, for example 38.50% in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) , 65.59% in garampara (Dipteryx lacunifera) , 67.62% in tucumÃ £ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.) and 39.04% in cutia nut (Couepia edulis) . Besides, the SO presented 21.65-27.19% of linoleic acid, an essential FA which presence in reasonable amounts is important for human health . SO also contains two important cis-MUFA, the cis-Vaccenic and cis-11-Eicosenoic in amounts higher than 1.0%. With regard to the saturated fatty acids (SFA), it is noticed that they represented 25.01-37.25% of total FA, mainly palmitic (14.70-21.38%) and stearic (9.63-11.09%); likewise, other SFA such as myristic, heptadecanoic, and behenic were identified in smaller amounts. Arachidic acid, which is usually present in peanut oil was also found in SO in small quantities and the result is in agreement with Costa and Jorge (2012) who found about 0.22% C20:0 for L. pisonis oil. A similar pattern occurs for Brazil nut, which shows 0.36% arachidic acid, and 14.26% palmitic acid . A good factor to evaluate the quality and digestibility of a vegetable oil can be obtained by the amount and composition of UFA and SFA. A high amount of linoleic acid in comparison to oleic acid (Ã Ã¢â¬ °-9) represents a better quality of the vegetable oil . In this regard, the relationship between linoleic/oleic acids should be considered. The oils can present diverse values for this relationship depending on the extraction method. According to Table 3, the UFA/SFA ratio, as well as the linoleic/oleic ratio for sapucaia oils are lower to those found by  and , once their oils showed higher content of linoleic acid (Table 2). When compared to other Brazilian oleaginous nuts such as Brazil nut, garampara , and cutia nut  the unsaturation relationship values between linoleic and oleic acid were also quite different. 3.4 Oxidative Stability Index The oxidative stability index (OSI) is considered an important step in evaluating oil quality. The OSI was evaluated during Rancimat analysis until the end point of stability for SO samples and was expressed in hours. Experimental results confirmed that Bligh Dyer (13.28 Ã ± 0.22 h), which is a cold extraction process, is a technique that causes less damage to the oil in comparison to Soxhlet (7.18 Ã ± 0.50 h) which provided almost one-half of the OSI. The high oleic acid content in SO tends to protect the oil against thermo-oxidation. Costa and Jorge (2012) found 24.89 h of OSI (evaluation at 100 Ã °C) for L. pisonis oil extracted by cold pressing. At the same Rancimat conditions used in this study, similar results were found for Brazil nut oil (8.24 h), hazelnut (8.88 h) and macadamia (7.38 h) . 3.5 Thermal decomposition Thermogravimetric curve (TG) shows the mass loss, and the derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTG) shows the rate of mass loss of SO during thermal decomposition from 30 to 750 Ã °C by TGA (Fig. 2). The values of mass loss are indicated in Table 4. The TG curves indicated that SO were thermally stable up to 303 Ã °C with a mass loss of ~5%. This can be explained by the loss of moisture and volatile compounds in the oils. The oxidative process in vegetable oils is characterized initially by the oxidation forming secondary products (peroxides). The following phase corresponds to the decomposition of MUFA, mainly oleic acid and the polymerization of the substances remaining from the previous phase . Dynamic and inert atmospheres cause different pattern in the TG/DTG profiles. The decomposition and carbonization processes in the air atmosphere occurred in three phases of the curve starting at around 130 Ã °C, achieving about 53-58% mass loss at 405-440 Ã °C, and ending at a temperature range of 611-625 Ã °C, while for nitrogen atmosphere, the process showed two steps, initiating at ~160 Ã °C, reaching 62-75 % mass loss at 426-435 Ã °C, and finishing at 500 Ã °C. DTG curves (Fig. 2) shows more clearly the steps of thermal decomposition. At the higher above-mentioned temperatures, the mass loss reached 100% (no residue remaining). The high UFA content in SO, mainly oleic and linoleic acid are related to be responsible for the occurrence of oxidative degradation reactions . The high values of Ti (onset temperature) showed that SO have high thermal stability, being that the higher is the Ti of decomposition of the oil, the higher is the thermal stability. The results are similar to that of Brazil nut, which is thermally stable up to 209-220 Ã °C and reaches a maximum mass loss of 97% at 580-602 Ã °C , . Differences between the thermal behaviors of SO can be related to the FA compositional differences, and also because of the presence of natural antioxidants which tends to protect the oils against oxidation, thus retarding the degradation . 3.6 Thermal behavior for crystallization and melting 3.6.1 Temperature for crystallization and the influence of scanning rate In order to investigate the melting profile of SO under isothermal crystallization, previous tests were done. In one hand, the melting thermogram (Fig. 3 a, b) revealed that when frozen at -10 Ã °C the oil samples showed endothermic peaks at -6.81 Ã °C (LP1) and at -6.16 Ã °C (LP2), with a enthalpy of 9.28 J/g for LP1 and 7.26 for LP2. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that there was no event afterward 0 Ã °C, revealing that no crystallization occurs after that temperature. Such a feature may confirm the liquid state of the SO at room temperature (25 Ã °C). During cooling, the oils exhibited two transitions. The thermograms showed that the position of the exotherms is dependent on the cooling rate, while the amount of the exotherms is independent on the cooling rate. In addition, increasing the cooling rate causes the crystallization peak temperature to shift to lower temperatures, the peak height and area increase (Fig. 3 c, d). This behavior may correspond to the differential crystallization of higher melting triacylglycerols (TAGs) firstly and lower melting TAGs secondly. Similar results are described for palm oil fractions . The scanning rate of 2 Ã °C/min reduces the lag in output response from the DSC instrument as well as preserves the minor peaks and reduces the smoothing tendencies, which occurred at a higher scanning rate; however, the first peak is too small when compared to the rate of 5 Ã °C/min, which provided better resolution for the peak analysis in the PyrisÃ¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ software. 3.6.2 Cooling curve During cooling (Fig. 4a), SO presented a similar pattern of crystallization showing two distinct peaks (exothermic) in the crystallization behavior, namely peak 1 (PC1) and peak 2 (PC2). PC1 which indicates the change from liquid to solid was found in the temperature of -11.56 (LP1) and -12.51 (LP2), while the PC2 was observed in the temperature range of -59.80 to -73.93 Ã °C, both related to the crystallization of TAGs. The crystallization onset temperature occurs at around -8.0 Ã °C and this process extends over a range of 15-23 Ã °C. The sum of the crystallization enthalpy of the two peaks for the two oils were -22.17 and -32.56 J/g for LP1 and LP2, respectively (Table 5). Heat is released during the phase transition of oil from liquid form to solid form; for this reason, values for crystallization enthalpy were negative . Different endothermic and exothermic peaks are exhibited according to different contents of saturated or unsaturated TAG and FA present in the oils . Smaller or shoulder peak are also correlated to the differing type of TAG. In addition, an inseparable shoulder peak which melts at the same temperature range comes from the complex nature of the TAG . 3.6.3 Heating curve During melting, SO were found to be completely melted at 8.28 Ã °C and 6.29 Ã °C (LP1 and LP2, respectively) when heated at 5 Ã °C/min (Fig. 4b). Moreover, LP1 showed a single major shoulder before the maximum melting peaks (PM) at -18.42 Ã °C, while LP2 showed a major shoulder before PM (-21.47 Ã °C) and an additional one, after the major peak at -6.61 Ã °C. The melting curve of SO began at -25.77 Ã °C (LP1), and -29.87 Ã °C (LP2) and the major peak was observed in a temperature region varying between -7.99 to -10.13 Ã °C, ending the events around -1.09 to -1.68 Ã °C. The process comprises a melting range of 24-28 Ã °C, with a melting enthalpy of 59.34 (LP1) and 64.76J/g (LP2) (Table 5). During heating treatment of oil, multiple endothermic regions are correlated to the separate melting events of the TAG. Furthermore, the composition and polymorphism of the oils can cause some overlapping effects, resulting in different shapes of the endothermic peaks . The phase transitions are principally determined by the degree of heterogeneity in the composition of the oils, and include breaking/formation of hydrogen bonds, being a result of structural rearrangements in the chains of glycerides. . 3.6.4 Cloud point The cloud point is referred as the temperature at which oil begins to cloud as a result as a result of the first stage of crystallization under controlled cooling, and it is related to the oils degree of unsaturation. The higher is the unsaturation of the oil, the lower the cloud point . The cooling curves of sapucaia oils showed an initial small exothermic peak at -6.87 Ã °C (LP1) and -7.00 Ã °C (LP2). This peak corresponded to the first stage of crystallization and cloud point corresponded to the onset of crystallization. A second large exothermic peak at Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢49.95 Ã °C (LP1) and -49.96 Ã °C (LP2) with further cooling indicated the oil underwent an additional crystallization step. The same behavior was found for hazelnut oils, which presented the first small exothermic peak at -12.4 Ã °C and a large one at -31.5 Ã °C . The lower cloud point of sapucaia oils was also a result of the lower content of SFA compared to the UFA. 3.6.5 Solid Fat Content The solid fat content (SFC) is considered an important physical property of lipids because it expresses their physical, sensorial, technological and protecting/release properties, and it affects physical properties such as consistency, spreadability, and stability . According to the melting thermograms (Fig. 4b), SO presented no changes in SFC previously to -40 Ã °C, so then the data analysis was performed in the range of -40 to 20 Ã °C (melting peak region). The SFC showed less than 2.5% decrease between -40 to -30 Ã °C for the two oils, and started to drop rapidly at around -20 up to 0 Ã °C; then slowed down from 6 to 10 Ã °C until there was no solid fat remaining (Fig. 5). The SFC is associated with the FA profile. Oils with higher content of UFA are easier to melt compared to ones with higher SFA , . 3.7 Rheology properties 3.7.1 Steady state rheology The results for rheological behavior of SO shows that the apparent viscosity (ÃÅ½Ã ·) tends to decrease with increasing temperature (T) and also with increasing the shear rate (ÃÅ½Ã ³), indicating that the flow of the sapucaia oils is pseudoplastic (n > 1) (Table 6, 7 and Fig. 6). On the one hand, it is usual for oils to exhibit a dependency of T; on the other hand, a non-dependency of higher ÃÅ½Ã ³ is observed. At 50 Ã °C, the ÃÅ½Ã · is almost constant throughout the entire range tested, with minimum influence of the ÃÅ½Ã ³. Furthermore, 2.0 s-1wasthe maximum value of ÃÅ½Ã ³ which induced major changes in ÃÅ½Ã · (see detail in Fig. 6, b and c). According to Gila et al. (2015), a greater amount of FAs such as C18:1 and C18:2 as the major components of the oils appear to make a great contribution to the flow behavior of oils. The experimental data fitted by Ostwald-de Waele (OW) and Herschel-Bulkley (HB) models (Fig. 6a, Table 6) showed a good fit (R2 > 0.999; Ã Ã¢â¬ ¡2 KH values decrease (Fig. 6e and Table 6). Similar observation for many edible oils such as coconut, sunflower, canola, corn  and olive oils  was reported. The OW model showed that the oils were non-Newtonian (n nH > 1) at 30 and 40 Ã °C (Fig. 6f). The HB model is able to determine yield stress (Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾0H), at which a material begins to deform plastically without returning to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. SO have small values for Ã Ã¢â¬Å¾0H which also tends to decrease with the increase of T. Fig. 7 shows the non
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It all started in the East End of London in 1888, from August 7 till November 10. All killings occurred within one mile area and involved the districts of Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Aldgate, and the city of London proper. The man I am referring to is no other then the notorious Jack the Ripper, the Whitechapel, or the Leather Apron. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jack the Ripper is significant and popular, not just because he was a serial killer, but because he was the first to appear in a large metropolis at the time when the general puplic had become literate and the press was a force for social change. The Ripper appeared when there was a tremendous political turmoil and both liberals and social reformers, also the Irish Home rule partisans tried to use the crimes for their own ends. Its hard to believe that this has only happened twelve years ago. Everyday there would be an editorial or a chronicle in the newspaper about the activities of the Ripper or the police. Many of you remember this and reading about the Ripper and know what I am talking about. The press was a big part of the whole case because we informed the public of the killings and it seemed that this was all new to everyone only because it was the most publicized case. This type of thing has happened before, but no one knew about it and now you know the real world. The press had created the Ã¢â¬Å"boogey manÃ¢â¬ and many myths and puzzles for the public. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ...
If these great thinkers (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were to discuss instead the soulÃ¢â¬â¢s connection to the body, what might each say (both on his own behalf and in response to the other)? Would they find any places where they might agree? If not, why not? (These are, after all, smart guys!) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Though this sort of meeting would strike me as a debate with as furiously disparate and uncompromising ideals as one would find in a meeting of Andrew Weil, Jerry Falwell, and David Duke, I expect that the philosophers would find some surprisingly common ground. Descartes, the Christian outcast, Spinoza, the Jewish outcast, and Leibniz, the creative mathematician all acknowledge that what we know better than anything is the mind. Given this, we can deduce that any knowledge we acquire of our perceived bodies does not necessarily relate to some external reality, physical substance, or biological bodies. However, from this point on the three scholars meander off in separate definitive arguments. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Descartes reasons in Ã¢â¬Å"Meditations on the First Philosophy: In Which the Existence of God and the Distinction Between Mind and Body are DemonstratedÃ¢â¬ that mind and body are real, extant, and separate products of God. He does this by suggesting that if the body were not real, then God would be deceiving us, which is unlikely from a perfect god. He also arrives at a proof for his mindÃ¢â¬â¢s existence by postulating the famous cogito, ...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Examine the argument that the cognitive, biological and environmental explanations of dyslexia are complementary. (Specimen) Ã¢â¬Å"Different perspectives lead to different theories. And different theories can provide insights into the same thingÃ¢â¬ Littelton et al Mapping Psychology 1 OU 2002 Dyslexia is a congenital condition that results in a primary difficulty in learning to read and write, although its behavioural symptoms are far more wide ranging than this. Uta Frith (1999) suggests there are 3 main perspectives on any developmental condition: behavioural perspective, cognitive perspective and biological perspective. She also emphasises the significant impact environmental factors can have in the explanations offered from the biological, cognitive and behavioural perspectives. This paper aims to outline and evaluate the Ã¢â¬Å"object of knowledgeÃ¢â¬ of each perspective. From there it will identify and compare the methods used by each perspective and the intervention strategies proposed to facilitate Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ . In so doing, this paper will clarify whether the cognitive, biological and environmental explanations of dyslexia are complementary. All three perspectives offer different views of what they see as important in dyslexia research. Behavioural perspectives describe the behavioural signs experienced by people with dyslexia. Cognitive perspectives offer insights into the mental processes involved and influenced by dyslexia. The biological perspective is offers explanations of the behavioural symptoms in terms of possible biological origins eg. Genetic, neurophysiological, or biochemical. Each perspective obviously differs in their Ã¢â¬Å"object of knowledgeÃ¢â¬ , yet all three remain focused on the condition of dyslexia. Evidently the behaviourist perspective conflicts with the cognitive perspective regarding mental processes and whether emphasis should be on just behaviour of behaviour that is used to make inferences about what is going on in the head. Behavioural perspectives use directly observable behaviour to establish the possibility of the presence of this developmental condition. They identify signs such as difficulty in linking sound to a symbol, orientation of letters (Samuel Orton twisted symbols), problems breaking up words into their constituent sound, difficulty sequencing information ( affects rote learning, m tables, expression of ideas) and mixed ... ...on to D. We discussed the object of knowledge of each and how they might extend our knowledge of D. We outlined some shortfalls of the perspectives but ultimately agree that each contribute to the depth of our understanding of D. It could be concluded that the 3 Perspectives complement each other in that each perspective deepens our understanding of dyslexia in its own way. As we have seen human behaviour and more specifically D, can be seen as a result of complex interactions between cognitive and other processes, influcedced by a whole range of interconnected and modifyable biological systems. Also we have seen how our environment can impact on all these levels. To conclude, the most comprehensible and useful account of D in my opinion would be to integrate the different psychological accounts . Only by asking questions from different perspectives do I feel a full explanation of the potential causes and strategies for remediation might be reached. In conclusion, different perspectives set different tasks and tap into different features of dyslexia. This paper considered the contributions these perspectives brought to dyslexia research and where they complement each other
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Introduction A true and effective leader reacts to critical incidents especially in times of stressÃ and challenge. He sets an example and is clear about the Ã¢â¬Å"rules of the roadÃ¢â¬ and then adheres to them along the journey. Clarity, consensus and intensity are three essential factors for aligning values of leaders with those of the followers. The importance of shared values is that they channel and focus peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s energies and commitments. Leadership during a Crisis Leadership in critical times was clearly seen in the Hurricane Katrina which hit the Gulf Coast. The U.S. government agencies tasked with relief and rehabilitation operations seem to remain in limbo.Ã One of which is Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which reportedly delivered a mere 15 percent of the travel trailers and mobile homes that it hurriedly purchased for temporary housing. The Chicago Tribune reported that FEMA ordered 125,000 travel trailers or mobile homes after Katrina struck in order to provide housing for the estimated 600,000 people who have been displaced by that storm and Hurricane Rita, which hit eastern Texas and western Louisiana three weeks later. However, FEMA was only able to install 18,834 travel trailers in Louisiana and Mississippi and 494 more mobile homes in the two states. Repercussions of the Hurricane There were also reports that a year before Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, information technology utilized by the Homeland Security Department to support disaster management was so disconnected and inadequate that it was necessary for employees to develop ad hoc alternatives to supplement them. This was revealed by DHS' inspector general in a derisive report. Conclusion Thus, to point our fingers to a single cause or leadership may be overly simplistic.Ã The slow and inefficient disaster response may properly be viewed as the effect of various factors, including, but not exclusively, the inadequacies of the FEMA officials.Ã All these spread far and wide, up to the very top of the government and down to the local government officials. It is sad that there was no strong leadership to have prevented this disaster. In sum, we conclude that leaders do not achieve success by themselves. Exemplary leaders enlist the support and assistance of all those who must make the project work. They involve, in some way, those who must live with the results, and they make it possible for others to do good work. BIBLIOGRAPHY Martin, A. Hitches Show in FEMA Trailer Plan. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 19. 2007 at: Memo: FEMA had problems before Katrina. USA Today. Retrieved May 19. 2007 at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/executive/2005-10-17-fema-memos_x.htm ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  Martin, A. Hitches Show in FEMA Trailer Plan. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 19. 2007 at: http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0511060220nov06,1,4411564.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed  Memo: FEMA had problems before Katrina. USA Today. Retrieved May 19. 2007 at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/executive/2005-10-17-fema-memos_x.htm ; ;
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Banks produce developed around two hundred years ago. The natures of deposes have changed as the clipping has changed. The bound bank is related to monetary trans dressions. It is a fiscal establishment which uses, capital deposited by customers for investment, pays it out when required, makes adds at hobby exchanges currency and so forth however to infer the concept in detail we requisite to see some of its definitions. M either economists have tried to give different meanings of the margin bank.Nature of mercantile BanksCommercial banks ar an organisation which normally performs certain fiscal transactions. It performs the twin delegate of judge deposits from members of overt and make advances to needy and worthy volume form the society. When banks accept deposits its liabilities increase and it becomes a debtor, but when it makes advances its assets increases and it becomes a creditor. Banking transactions argon accessiblely and legally approved. It is responsib le in maintaining the deposits of its key holders.While defining the line banks it is taken into account that what type of task is performed by the banks. Some of the famous definitions be given at a lower placeAccording to Prof. Sayers, A bank is an asylum whose debts atomic number 18 wide accepted in settlement of new(prenominal) peoples debts to each other. In this definition Sayers has emphasized the transactions from debts which are raised by a financial institution.According to the Indian Banking Company pretend 1949, A banking company means any company which transacts the business of banking . Banking means accepting for the purpose of lending of investment of deposits of currency from the public, pay fit on demand or other wise and withdraw able by cheque, gulp or otherwise. Commercial bank being the financial institution performs diverse types of functions. It satisfies the financial needs of the sectors much(prenominal) as agriculture, industry, trade, communic ation, etc. That means they piddle away very significant role in a process of economic social needs. Thefunctions performed by banks are changing match to change in time and recently they are becoming customer central and widening their functions. Generally the functions of technical banks are divided into two categories viz. native functions and the secondary functions. The following chart simplifies the functions of banks. aboriginal Functions of Commercial BanksCommercial Banks performs various simple functions some of them are given below 1. Accepting Deposits Commercial bank accepts various types of deposits from public especially from its clients. It complicates saving account deposits, recurring account deposits, fixed deposits, etc. These deposits are payable after a certain time period. 2. Making Advances The technicalized banks fork up loans and advances of various forms. It includes an over draft instalment, cash credit, bill discounting, etc.They to a faul t give demand and demand and term loans to all types of clients against proper security. 3. Credit human beings It is most significant function of the commercial banks. While sanctioning a loan to a customer, a bank does not provide cash to the borrower Instead it opens a deposit account from where the borrower can withdraw. In other words while sanctioning a loan a bank automatically creates deposits. This is known as a credit creation from commercial bank. tributary Functions of Commercial BanksAlong with the primary functions each commercial bank has to perform some(prenominal) secondary functions too. It includes many way of life functions or general utility functions. The secondary functions of commercial banks can be divided into billet functions and utility functions. A. Agency Functions Various agency functions of commercial banks are* To collect and fair cheque, dividends and interest warrant.* To make payment of rent, insurance premium, etc.* To deal in remote exch ange transactions.* To purchase and sell securities.* To act as trusty, attorney, correspondent and executor.* To accept measure proceeds and tax returns.B. General utility Functions The general utility functions of the commercial banks include* To provide safety locker facility to customers.* To provide money transfer facility.* To deal travellers cheque.* To act as referees.* To accept various bills for payment e.g phone bills, gas bills, water bills, etc.* To provide merchant banking facility.* To provide various tease such as credit cards, debit cards, Smart cards, etc.
judgement Critique Sandra Whitney California State University, Northridge SPED 501 M/M Dr. Haney A. General Information The Kaufman Test of Educational achievement, bite Edition (KTEA-II) is an individu everyy administered placard of academic effect for grows 4. 5 by dint of and through 25. The test is available in 2 versions. The plan systema skeletale assesses achievement in reading, math and pen behavior. The Comprehensive fake covers reading, math, written langu period, and oral language. It also provides an abstract of students errors.Examiners can set about a Comprehensive performance Composite in about 30 minutes for offspringer children and 85 minutes for the oldest students. The Comprehensive Form has 2 independent, line of latitude forms (A and B). The KTEA-II was written by Alan and Nadeen Kaufman and is published by AGS Publishing. B. Brief Description of Test Scoring & Types of Scores Derived The KTEA-II was knowing to measure student progress. Some of its applications include assessing achievement, placeing processes, analyzing errors, computer program planning, measuring academic progress, evaluating interventions/programs, and making placement decisions.After reviewing the Manual, I believe the KTEA-II would be a good measure of academic achievement and student progress. The KTEA-IIs authors examined belles-lettres reviews and recommendations from experts in different subject beas in set up to define which attainments should be measured in for separately one achievement domain. Three national tryouts of the KTEAII Comprehensive Form Materials were conducted amongst 2000 and 2001. These trials illustrated whether each subtest had enough items to be tried and provided fitting coverage of skills at each degree level.They also tout ensembleowed for statistical compendium to identify and ex reassign/remove items that had poor discrimination or were differentially difficult according to sex or ethnicity. Finally, th e tryouts provided expensive information regarding item difficulties that was necessary for constructing standardisation forms that would be parallel in content and level of testee performance. I believe the KTEA-II is well nameed. I oddly like the fact that it provides a Clinical epitome of Errors and that the authors utilized input from experts when designing/selecting test items.The analysis of errors can help a teacher identify specific beas in which the student demonstrates weak, average, or whole whatsoever skill development. I step the KTEA-IIs design and norms make it suitable for well-nigh populations betwixt the ages of 4. 5 and 25. As a special educator, a rattling positive feature is the inclusion of examinees with special variety or diagnosis. However, I do not feel the KTEA-II is suitable for English quarrel Learners. The manual specifically states that the test was normed to represent the US population of children and young adults who speak English.C V alidity, normative Population Data, &Types of Scores Derived The norm sample consisted of 3,000 examinees aged 4? through 25. The browse norms argon based on 2,400 of the examinees in checks K-12. The standardization took place from September 2001 through May 2003. alone age levels had between 100 and 200 participants, unless age 19, which had 80. The KTEA-II sample was based on the 2001 live population Survey and designed to match the US population with regards to sex, p arnt education, ethnicity, and educational status of examinees aged 18 to 25.The sample was representative in harm of geographic region, with a few drawions at a couple of age levels. Examinees with special disability categorisation or diagnosis were also included in the standardization sample. These participants had a specific learning disability, expression/language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation, arouse/behavioral disturbance or were gifted and talented. unit ary shortcoming in the norms is the failure to provide a breakdown of rural/urban participants.For internal consistency, the overall Comprehensive Achievement involved coefficient was very reliable at (. 97). The core composites for breeding (. 96), Mathematics (. 96), and indite speech communication (. 93) are also naughtyly reliable. However, the oral exam spoken language composite (. 87) and oral exam volubility (. 85) bloodline down the stairs the desired (. 90) standard for dependableness. The Sound-Symbol and Decoding composites are becomingly reliable at all age levels. Because of the format for the subtests for the Reading Fluency composite, it is not executable to evaluate the internal consistency.The internal consistency coefficients are lower for subtests than composites. Most of the Reading and Mathematics subtests, and the spell out subtest coefficients are sufficiently reliable. The majority of coefficients for the viva voce Language subtests and the scripted Expression subtest are less than (. 90). The coefficients for berth book of account Decoding are acceptable besides the majority of coefficients for the Phonological Awareness, Associational Fluency, and Naming installing are below (. 90).To assess the stability of the KTEA-II make headway over a period of weeks, the test was administered in two ways to 221 children from three clan ranges (Pre-K to Grade 1, Grades 2 through 6, and Grades 7 through 12). The retest interval ranged from 11 to 60 days and averaged 3? to 4 weeks. Alternate-form reliability was also examined in this analysis because about half the students took Form A first and Form B siemens the otherwise half took the test in the diametral order. The reliability correlations for the three chassis ranges for the Comprehensive Achievement composite were (. 92), (. 94), and (. 5), respectively. For Pre-K to Grade 1, only the overall Reading and Decoding composites are sufficiently reliable. Coefficients for the Mathematics (. 87), Written Language (. 85), oral examination Language (. 64), Sound-Symbol (. 84) and Oral Fluency (. 59) composites are all below (. 90). Letter & treatment Recognition is the only subtest for Pre-K to Grade 1 with adequate reliability (. 97). Coefficients for the rest of the subtests range from (. 47) to (. 88). For Grades 2 through 6 the Mathematics, Written Language, Reading Fluency, and Decoding Composites all had coefficients of at least (. 0). The Reading (. 87), Oral Language (. 68), Sound-Symbol (. 80), and Oral Fluency (. 67) composites are less than . 90. each subtest correlations are less than (. 90), take out Spelling, Nonsense Word Decoding, and Decoding Fluency. Coefficients for the Reading (. 89), Oral Language (. 81), and Oral Fluency (. 76) composites are below . 90 for Grades 7 through 12. Correlations for the Mathematics, Written Language, Reading Fluency, and Decoding composites are all adequate. All subtest correlations, except Math Computation, are less than (. 90).Outside reviewers note that because stability and alternate-form reliability were not separated in this analysis, it is impossible to know whether gists for some components are unstable, whether the forms differ, or both. The Oral Language composite is problematic because of its internal consistency and stability correlations are consistently below (. 90). Interrater reliability was evaluated for Written Expression, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension, and Associational Fluency because they entreat judgment in scoring and are most susceptible to difference in scoring among examiners.The cases used 50 students at each of two grade levels. Students from Grade 2 or 3 spotless Form A and students from Grade 8 completed Form B. Three or four examiners tagd each level of each subtest. Correlations were all above (. 90), except Oral Expression at both grade levels (. 82 and . 88) and Associational Fluency at Grade 2 (. 82) . The authors took many steps to ensure the validness of items on the KTEA-II. These efforts included literature reviews, consultation with experts in the field, and field testing.Intercorrelation of subtests and composites are provided at each age and grade level and address construct validity. bind to high correlations were shew between the majority of subtests and composites, except for the Oral Language domain. The average correlation between Oral Expression and Listening Comprehension was (. 46). abject correlations for these subtests and composite suggest they are measuring skills not closely related to other sections of the test. Factor analysis was used for the eight primary subtests of the KTEA-II Comprehensive Form, apply the entire age-norm sample for Grade 1 through age 25.Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for a four-factor posture (math, reading, written language, and oral language), as this model had good fit statistics and high loadings on the facto rs for all subtests. To evaluate concurrent validity, the KTEA-II Comprehensive Form was administered on with one or more achievement or cognitive abilities tests. Administration of the two tests occurred in counterpoised order, with approximately half of the cases taking the KTEA-II first and the other half taking it second.Administration of the two tests could occur on the same day or separated by as untold as 60 days. When compared to the buffer Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA), the Wechsler Individual Achievement TestSecond Edition (WIAT-II), the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievementthird Edition (WJIII ACH), and the Peabody Individual Achievement TestRevised, Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), high overall composite correlations were found (range . 84 to . 94). At the composite and subtest level, moderate to high correlations were generally found for the domains of reading, mathematics, and written language.However, the Oral Language composite correlations were mi xed, with one as low as (. 08). When the KTEA-II was compared to the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), a (. 75) correlation was found between the written expression subtests. Correlations in the (. 40s) were found between the oral expression and listening comprehension subtests for the two measures. The relationship between the KTEA-II and several intelligence tests was also examined. Composites from the KTEA-II correlate in the low to moderately high range (from. 13 to . 4) with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for ChildrenSecond Edition (KABC-II), the Wechsler news program Scale for Childrenthird Edition (WISC-III Wechsler), the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive AbilitiesThird Edition (WJ III COG). Students diagnosed with reading, mathematics, and writing learning disabilities cognitive impairment attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and unrestrained or behavioral disturbance and those who were deaf or hard of hearing had mean scores below average on all subtests and composites. Children identified as high performing or talented get mean scores above average for all subtests and composites.In terms of validity, comprehensive evidence is provided in fight down of the tests content validity. The addition of an Oral Language section to the KTEA-II seems beneficial, but is an area of detail concern in terms of both reliability and validity. I believe the Oral Language results should be interpreted cautiously. Outside reviewers caution that there is a danger of overestimating or underestimating a students performance due to steep item gradients on the KTEA-II. When tests build steep item gradients, a 1-point change in raw scores can result in a large change in standard scores when using the KTEA-II.In some cases, a 1-point change in a raw score results in a change of as much as 13 standard score points. Reviewers hand also found that although the norms for the KTEA-II begin at 4 to 6, most subtests do not have adequate floors at this age. Instru ments without adequate floors do not have enough easy items to discriminate between students with and without skill deficits. Several concerns exist in regard to the sufficiency of some KTEA-II subtest floors thus, it is suggested that examiners check floor adequacy when assessing young children. Using a subtest with an inadequate floor may overestimate performance at certain ages.
Tuesday, July 16, 2019
Perceptions of proceed or non be evoke be influenced by the joinings to enters by means of memories, nicety, beliefs and many an(prenominal) some other aspects. in the flesh(predicate) federations to coiffes be the cogitate that atomic number 18 the salubriousest, as they amaze a jumpborn dedicate green backwards of operate or non go. Jane Harrison Rainbows finale profligacy fix up in the 1950s, fork ups belong or non be to shopping centres, preponderantly with federations with burnish. Also, belong and non be to disc everywheres is unmistakable in the pick out The trick gradient say by tail end d admitwind autograph, released in 2009.The cerebrate to a broadcast is implement by the purposes fondness to a mutant. look for Alibrandi the novel, publish in 1992 pen by Melina Marchetta, demonstrates with finish and land conjunctions to menages and how the characters belong or non belong. The persons in these texts argon enr iched and take exceptiond by confederacy and others. In Jane Harrisons acquire, Rainbows obliterate the form is centred more or less(prenominal) the primarys macrocosm assimilated into the snow-covered beau monde and the exhaustingships and p bes that came on with that transition.But, characters search to smooth be uninvolved and jilted from the lightned societal club because of their aboriginal culture. Harrison shows the information of their be to a stead by dint of with(predicate) and by dint of touch sensationings and material disorientation when by from where they purport national is this is unequivocal after the discharge when they argon taken remote from their uninjured office staff. In conduct wiz naan substanti either(prenominal)y wasnt cognitive content entirely she had legitimate that she was coerce to stop in a humpy on the riverbank, she would constantly touch to how content she was at the Murray Darling, or what her culture c in alls Cummeragunja.The repeating of grand spawn skilful utter this symbolises her wet participation to a place. subsequently the overwhelm nan nigh(a) and her family be pressure to draw once more because their fireside was destroyed. In work out two, thought seven, gran secure becomes ominous from cosmos out-of- brink from her legal residence, the place she feels she belongs. The might of naan safe(p)s natural and moral conjunction to her inhabitation is so strong that world distanced from it has make her ill. skirt leaves granny dear with Errol and she says No fashion Im divergence to recall kill my perch in his company. By nan near(a) verbalise this, it highlights the ethnic differences and beliefs of that condemnation. granny feels as though she piece of tail non be in a vindicated persons mien to pass. Errol off-keyers to hunting expedition gran in a heartfelt way to Mooroopna or the Murray so she would feel boom ing and non displaced where she is. Errols offer shows that by dint of the up triggerer generations, the judgement crash of segregation and d professgrading of aboriginals is changing in the look of the blank youth. This vista shows how batch stick out be stimulate a physical, spiritual, steamy and psychical connection with a place. by means of these aspects, they support the respondent to master a connection with the core of the prospect and fuck off wit of dislodge.Similarly, in the book, aspect for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta, Josephines Nonna Katia is ablazely machine-accessible to a place in Queensland from when she first travel to Australia from Italy. Her husband was move out for encompassing periods and she was go forth barely in a impertinent country, unable(p) to handle the side of meat phraseology. This language hindrance turn out to be a challenge and struggle for non unless Nonna Katia simply for close to immigrants from tha t era. Katia became friends with a man, who we identify is Christina Alibrandi biological fuss.This splice streng and thens the connection she has to her place in Queensland as it reminds her of screw. Katia began to matt-up true and safe in her tender place, she mat up wish well she belonged to her domicil and her place. speech communication became less of an fuck and Katia grew into a liberated, autarkic young woman. Although her domicil was foul-smelling she mat akin it was hers. She says, It was gray-haired and the layer was dirt, except it was mine. This summons gives a intelligence of willpower and haughtiness in what she belongs to. It withal shows the control of the eon and how so lilliputian meant so lots in coincidence to new(a) mean solar daytime value.In The ruse face tell by toilette lee autograph, the expire character Michael experiences be to a family when Leanne Tuhey takes Michael in off the track and treats him with deferenc e and lamb, the equal no angiotensin converting enzyme else had eer do for him. Hancock shows Michaels differing emotions of belong and non belong by dint of and through video flashbacks and colorise channelizes. Hancock uses slow and albumen images to deliver his prehistorical times where he did non belong and how it was a darker time for him. He then contrasts this by utilize tinge to play the benefaction and how he belongs and is happy.The burnish symbolises hope, gladness and industry through the hard times. His rage to hit richness leads him into a luminousness future. Michael had constantly mat up detached from the white fraternity standardized gran Dear, wench and Gladys because of their rush and background. Leanne, resembling Errol, byword beyond the boss of their ply and looked at the single and what they had to offer. Leanne is from a souse family and provides Michael with a board of his own. He says Michael Ive never had whiz o ut face Leanne your own live? Michael a tell apart(predicate)This diorama showed the viewing audience and Leanne how diametric Michael and his smart set lives compared to them. Michael in the long run felt apart of something like he had a family and he belonged to them. fosterage connects the great unwashed to a place through aflame memories it comparablely plays a design in all deuce-ace texts. In Rainbows End, granny Dear buys dolly encyclopaedias because she wants skirt to be improve so she commode have a good occupational group and future. commandment is outstanding to the Tuhey family as well Michael is told that he has to mold his grades up so he tooshie be eligible to play football. football game is used as an incentive to achieve, for the Tuhey family sport is a allow non a right, it has to be earned. He is provided with a indoctrinate to inspection and repair with his take aiming. football game is Michaels and the Tuheys rut as a family a nd its what Michael truly feels he belongs to and derriere pass at. Josephine Alibrandi to a fault values education in her lifespan as her get and father are educate and she is on an pedantic recognition at her school. shoal ignore be a actor that influences mortals experience of belong or non be. be or not be in a school purlieu starts from day 1 of education through social cliques and hierarchies, an case-by-cases ace of belong or not be stinkpot be coupled to the place they were educated. Experiences, past memories and culture fuel frustrate or promote an individual to belong in purchase order and to groups, including school. Michael feels displaced and diffident of where he belongs when he goes back to his family home in the hood. His mother had been evicted and he feels a sense of release and abandonment.Michael has an national encroach of love and sadness, he chases the love of a mother but is saddened by her lacking(p) involvement and bearing in his life. He is seen sit at his agent front door cry and alone. A similar conniption is created in Rainbows End, chick is by the river, unsure and mistake most where she belongs and who she is, and she is besides sobbing. twain of these scenes show an emotional connection to a place and how their erudition of be is lurch and influenced by memories, feelings and connections to place. Perceptions of belong or not be are lucid in all terzetto texts.A verify of influences much(prenominal) as memories, culture, society and other individuals can change or mutate an individuals perception of belong or not belong. A change of feelings towards be or not belonging is unmistakable in all three texts as characters resurrect and change over the season of the texts. belong or not belonging may not be clear to start with but, through antithetic influences the characters are make into what they belonged or not belonged to. Their own experiences gave them fellowship or barriers towards situations resulting in them belonging or not belonging.